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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
xANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
OR
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ________ to ________
Commission file number 001-39395
Faraday Future Intelligent Electric Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware371184-4720320
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary standard industrial classification code number)(I.R.S. Employer
 Identification Number)
18455 S. Figueroa Street
Gardena, CA

90248
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
(424) 276-7616
Registrant's telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareFFIEThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Redeemable warrants, exercisable for shares of Class A Common Stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per shareFFIEWThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
o
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
x
Smaller reporting company
x
Emerging growth company
x
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. o

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12 (b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1 (b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x
Based on the closing price as reported on the Nasdaq Stock Market, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s Common Stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2022 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $240.2 million. Shares of Common Stock held by each executive officer and director and by each stockholder of more than 10% of any class of voting equity securities of the registrant have been excluded from this calculation because such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of February 27, 2023, there were 692,971,853 shares of Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, and 64,000,588 shares of Class B Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, issued and outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant’s 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



Table of Contents
Page
Item 1.
Business
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
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Part I

Item 1. Business
 
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “FFIE” refer to Faraday Future Intelligent Electric Inc. (f/k/a Property Solutions Acquisition Corp.), a holding company incorporated in the State of Delaware, and not to its subsidiaries, and references herein to the “Company,” “FF,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to FFIE and its consolidated subsidiaries. We refer to our primary operating subsidiary in the U.S., Faraday&Future Inc., as “FF U.S.” We refer to all our subsidiaries organized in China (including Hong Kong) collectively as the “PRC Subsidiaries,” a complete list of which is set forth in Exhibit 21.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K forms a part. As of February 27, 2023, our only operating subsidiaries in mainland China and in Hong Kong are FF Automotive (China) Co. Ltd., Ruiyu Automotive (Beijing) Co., Ltd. and Shanghai Faran Automotive Technology Co., Ltd., each of which was organized in the PRC. The discussion of FF’s business and the electric vehicle industry below is qualified by, and should be read in conjunction with, the discussion of the risks related to FF’s business and industry detailed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Company Overview
 
FF is a California-based global shared intelligent mobility ecosystem company with a vision to disrupt the automotive industry.
 
With headquarters in Los Angeles, California, the Company designs and engineers next-generation intelligent, connected, electric vehicles. FF intends to start manufacturing vehicles at its production facility in Hanford, California, with additional future production capacity needs addressed through a contract manufacturing partner in South Korea. FF is also exploring other potential contract manufacturing options in addition to the contract manufacturer in South Korea. The Company has additional engineering, sales, and operational capabilities in China and is exploring opportunities for potential manufacturing capabilities in China through a joint venture or other arrangement.

Since its founding, the Company has created major innovations in technology and products, and a user centered business model. We believe these innovations will enable FF to set new standards in luxury and performance that will enhance quality of life and redefine the future of intelligent mobility.

FFIE is a holding company incorporated in the State of Delaware. As a holding company with no material operations of its own, FFIE conducts its operations through its operating subsidiaries. We currently have a majority of our operations in the U.S. conducted through our U.S.-domiciled operating subsidiaries. We also operate our business in the People’s Republic of China and plan to have significant operations in the future in both Mainland China and Hong Kong (together, “PRC” or “China”) through our subsidiaries organized in the PRC (collectively, the “PRC Subsidiaries”). Investors in FFIE’s Class A Common Stock (the “Class A Common Stock,” and with FFIE’s Class B Common Stock, the “Common Stock”) are investors solely of FFIE, a Delaware holding company. There are various risks associated with our current operating presence in China and the potential expansion of our operations in China (including Hong Kong), which is subject to political and economic influence from China. Recently, the Chinese government initiated a series of regulatory actions and made statements to regulate business operations in China with little advance notice, including cracking down on illegal activities in the securities market, enhancing supervision over China-based companies that seek to conduct offshore securities offering or to be listed overseas, adopting new measures to extend the scope of cybersecurity reviews, and expanding the efforts in anti-monopoly enforcement. Since these statements and regulatory actions are new, it is highly uncertain how soon legislative or administrative regulation-making bodies will respond and what existing or new laws or regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations will be modified or promulgated if any, and the potential impact such modified or new laws and regulations will have on our business operations, our ability to accept foreign investments and to maintain FFIE’s listing on a U.S. exchange. The Chinese government may intervene or influence the operations of our PRC Subsidiaries, or at any time exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and foreign investment in China-based issuers in accordance with PRC laws and regulations, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or a material reduction in the value of our Class A Common Stock and warrants. Additionally, the governmental and regulatory interference could significantly limit or completely hinder our and our investors’ ability to offer or continue to offer our shares of Class A Common Stock to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless. For a detailed description of risks related to our PRC operations, see “Risk Factors – Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China.




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Technology
 
FF’s technology innovations include its proprietary Variable Platform Architecture (“VPA”), propulsion system, and Internet, Autonomous Driving, and Intelligence (“I.A.I.”) systems.
 
The VPA is a modular skateboard-like platform which can be sized to accommodate various motor and powertrain configurations, enabling fast and capital efficient product development for both the passenger and commercial vehicle segments. FF’s propulsion system includes an industry-leading inverter design, and a propulsion system that provides a competitive edge in electric drivetrain performance. FF’s advanced I.A.I. technology offers high-performance computing, high speed internet connectivity, Over-the-air (“OTA”) updates, an open ecosystem for third party application integration, and a Level 3 autonomous driving-ready system, in addition to several other proprietary innovations that enable the Company to build a highly personalized user experience.
 
FF has recently upgraded the FF 91 Futurist vehicle from PT Gen 1.0 to PT Gen 2.0. This generational upgrade consists of 26 significant upgrades to systems and core components of both the EV area (the vehicle) and the I.A.I area (the advanced core of intelligence, autonomous driving and internet). The 13 key upgrades to the EV area include improvements to the powertrain, battery, charging, chassis, and interior, and the 13 key upgrades to I.A.I. include upgrades in computing, sensing, user interaction, and communication, as well as upgrades to the newest technology. Along with other vehicle performance improvements, FF’s technology is designed to deliver superior acceleration of 2.27 seconds from 0 to 60 mph and safety.
 
Since inception, FF has developed a differentiated portfolio of valuable intellectual property. As of February 27, 2023, the Company has been granted approximately 660 patents (with approximately a third issued in the U.S., and slightly less than two-thirds issued in China, and the remaining issued in other jurisdictions). These patents are issued to various FFIE entities, including Faraday Future, Faraday & Future, FF Automotive (China) Co., Ltd., Leka Automotive Intelligent Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., and LeEco Eco-Car (Zhejiang) Co., Ltd. Key patents include FF’s inverter assembly, integrated drive and motor assemblies, methods and apparatus for generating current commands for an interior permanent magnet (“IPM”) motor, and keyless vehicle entry system. These key patents will expire in 2035 and 2036.
  
Products
 
FF’s B2C (business-to-consumer) passenger vehicle pipeline over the next five years includes the FF 91 series, the FF 81 series, and the FF 71 series, each designed to target different passenger vehicle segments. In addition to passenger vehicles, and leveraging its VPA and other proprietary technology, FF plans to produce a Smart Last Mile Delivery (“SLMD”) vehicle to address the high growth last mile delivery market.
 
Each of the three passenger vehicle series is planned in two different configurations (the FF 91 will also come in a limited edition model). At the top end, the “Futurist” configurations will drive FF’s core brand values (design, superior driving experience, and personalized user experience enabled through FF’s unique I.A.I technologies) to the fullest. Offering multiple configurations allows FF to participate in a wide price range within each vehicle series.
 
Based on certain management assumptions, including the timely receipt of $38.4 million to $58.4 million of additional funding, which commitments have been secured on February 3, 2023, where the Company entered into an Amendment No. 6 to Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Sixth Amendment”) with FF Simplicity as administrative and collateral agent and Senyun, FF Top, FF Simplicity, FF Prosperity, Acuitas and other purchasers, and approval by stockholders of the proposal to increase FFIE’s authorized shares of Class A Common Stock from 815,000,000 to 1,690,000,000, increasing the total authorized shares from 900,000,000 to 1,775,000,000, which approval was obtained during the special meeting of stockholders held on February 28, 2023, timely completion of key equipment installation and commissioning work at the ieFactory California in Hanford, California, suppliers meeting their commitments on program deliverables including parts, the implementation and effectiveness of certain expense reduction and payment delay measures, and timely and successful testing and certification, FF expects start of production of the FF 91 Futurist at the end of March 2023, coming off the line in early April 2023, and deliveries to users anticipated to begin before the end of April 2023. Please refer to “Risk Factors – Risks Related to FF’s Business and Industry – FF’s vehicles are in development and the delivery of FF’s first vehicle has experienced, and may continue to experience, significant delays” for a discussion on risks and uncertainties related to the expected production and delivery. Toward that goal, FF has completed most of its vehicle development milestones, and recently announced Milestone #6, completion of key equipment installation work at the ieFactory California in Hanford, California. The FF 91 series is designed to compete with Maybach, Bentley Bentayga, Lamborghini Urus, Ferrari Purosangue, Mercedes S-Class, Rolls Royce Spectre, Porsche Taycan, BMW 7-Series, etc. In addition to the FF 91 series, FF has planned the following passenger vehicles:
 
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FF 81 series, FF’s second passenger vehicle, is envisioned to be a premium mass market electric connected vehicle positioned to compete against Tesla Model S and Model X, Nio ES8, BMW 5-series, and similar vehicles.
FF 71 series, FF’s mass market passenger vehicle, plans to integrate connectivity and advanced technology into a smaller vehicle size and positioned to compete against Tesla Model 3 and Model Y, BMW 3-series, and similar vehicles.
Product Positioning
 
All FF passenger vehicles will share common brand “DNA” of:
 
Intelligence, Internet and connectivity;
modern design: styling;
superior driving experience: leading power, performance and driving range; and
personalized user experience: space, comfort and internet experience
The flagship FF 91 series with its recent product and technology upgrade to PT Gen 2.0 will define the FF brand DNA. This DNA will carry over to FF 81 and FF 71 series vehicles at lower price points. With such brand DNA, FF believes its products will be ahead of competition in their respective segments in terms of design, driving experience, interior comfort, connectivity, and user experience.
 
Robust Hybrid Manufacturing Strategy
 
To implement a capital light business model, FF has adopted a hybrid global manufacturing strategy consisting of its refurbished manufacturing facility in Hanford, California and a collaboration with Myoung Shin, a contract manufacturing partner in South Korea. FF is also exploring other potential contract manufacturing options in addition to the contract manufacturer agreement in South Korea. The Company is also exploring the possibility of manufacturing capacity in China through a joint venture or other arrangement.
 
As of the date hereof:
 
FFIE leased a 1.1 million square foot manufacturing facility in Hanford, California with an expected production capacity of approximately 10,000 vehicles per year; and
FFIE entered into a definitive contract manufacturing and supply agreement with Myoung Shin Co., Ltd. (“Myoung Shin”), a South Korea-based automotive manufacturer and parts supplier, to manufacture the Company’s second vehicle, the FF 81. The agreement has an initial term of nine years from the start of production of the FF 81. Pursuant to the agreement, Myoung Shin shall maintain sufficient manufacturing capabilities and capacity to supply FF 81 vehicles to FF in accordance with the Company’s forecasts and purchase orders. FF and Myoung Shin will each manufacture and supply certain FF 81 parts that Myoung Shin will use in the manufacture and assembly of FF 81 vehicles.
Distribution Model
 
FF management anticipates making its first passenger vehicles available in the U.S., followed shortly thereafter by a rollout in China. Expansion of sales to Europe may begin as early as 2024, and additional markets may be added thereafter. FF plans to utilize a direct sales model integrating online and offline sales channels to drive sales and user (including customers, drivers, passengers of FF vehicles) operations to continuously create value. FF’s offline sales are planned through FF’s self-owned stores as well as FF Partner-owned stores and showrooms. The self-owned stores are expected to help establish the FF brand, while the partner-owned stores and showrooms will enable expansion of the sales and distribution network without substantial capital investment by FF.
 
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FF’s Competitive Strengths
 
FF’s products, technology, team and business model provide strong competitive differentiation.
 
FF’s proprietary VPA
 
FF’s proprietary VPA is a skateboard-like platform that incorporates the critical components of an electric vehicle, and can be sized to accommodate various motor and powertrain configurations. This flexible modular design supports a range of consumer and commercial vehicles and facilitates rapid development of multiple vehicle programs to reduce cost and time to market.
 
Projected product performance with industry-leading propulsion technology
 
FF’s propulsion system includes an industry-leading inverter design and proprietary drive propulsion system. FF’s proprietary FF Echelon Inverter has the technological advantage of driving a large amount of current in a small space using proprietary parallel Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (“IGBTs”), achieving low inverter losses and high efficiency. The propulsion system has high torque accuracy with fast transient response. The electric motor drive units are fully integrated with the inverter, transmission and control unit to create industry-leading volume and design efficiency. Propelled by an integrated FF designed powertrain, FF’s vehicles can achieve leading horsepower, efficiency, and acceleration performance as recently attested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and California’s Air Resources Board (“CARB”) by confirming a range of 381 miles on a single charge and internally measured acceleration of 2.27 seconds from 0 to 60 mph for the FF 91.
 
Internet, Autonomous Driving, and Intelligence (“I.A.I”) Technology
 
FF’s advanced I.A.I. technology offers high-performance computing, high speed internet connectivity, OTA updates, an open ecosystem for third party application integration, and a Level 3 autonomous driving-ready system, in addition to several other proprietary innovations that enable the Company to build an advanced highly personalized user experience. The FF 91 series will feature a high-performance dual systems-on-a-chip (“SoC”) computing platform for in-vehicle infotainment, a NVIDIA based autonomous driving system, and a high-speed connectivity system that will be capable of up to three simultaneous 5G connections. Together, these systems will deliver a highly intelligent voice-first user experience, and seamless cloud connectivity and a vehicle that is Level 3 highway autonomous driving ready.
 
FF’s I.A.I system is built on an enhanced Android Automotive code base and is upgraded with each release of Google’s platform.
 
All FF vehicles use FF’s proprietary FFID unique identifier to deliver personalized content, apps and experiences. FFID provides a unique FF user profile that ensures a consistent experience across the FF Ecosystem, as the user goes from one seat to another or even from one vehicle to another.
 
Strong intellectual property portfolio
 
FF has significant capabilities in the areas of vehicle engineering, vehicle design and development, as well as software, internet, and AI. The Company has also developed a number of proprietary processes, systems and technologies across these areas. FF’s research and development efforts have resulted in a strong intellectual property portfolio across battery, powertrain, software, user interface design and user experience design (“UI/UX”), and advanced driver-assistance systems, among other areas. FF’s proprietary inverter design provides high current and is integrated into the electric drive unit, creating a high power-to-weight ratio. The patented keyless entry technology recognizes the user from a distance, opens (rather than simply unlocking) doors and customizes the user’s seating area using facial-recognition-prompted download of FFID data. Patented autonomous driving technology will allow users to find empty space in a parking lot and autonomously park using cameras, radars, LIDARs (Light Detection and Ranging), ultrasound and an inertial measurement unit (“IMU”) (available after production and delivery via a software upgrade). FF believes its strong intellectual property portfolio will allow continued differentiation from its competitors and shorten time to market for future products.
  
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Visionary management with a strong record of success
 
FF is led by a visionary management team with a unique combination of automotive, communication, and internet experience. FF’s Global CEO, Mr. Xuefeng Chen, is an automotive veteran with international and extensive operational experience with luxury automotive brands, Mr. Xuefeng Chen has spent nearly 20 years in the automotive industry, having worked for Changan Ford, Changan Mazda, Ford Asia Pacific Design Center and Chery Jaguar Land Rover prior to joining FF. FF’s founder and Chief Product and User Ecosystem Officer, Mr. Yueting Jia, focuses on product and mobility ecosystem; internet and AI; and advanced R&D technology. Mr. Jia founded Leshi Information Technology Co., Ltd., a video streaming website in 2004. He also founded Le Holdings Co. Ltd. (“LeEco”), an internet ecosystem and technology company with businesses including smart phones, smart TVs, smart cars, internet sports, video content, internet finance and cloud computing. FF’s other management team members have significant product, industry and leadership experience in areas such as vehicle engineering, battery, powertrain, software, internet, AI, and consumer electronics.
 
Speed to market
 
FF has achieved several commercial milestones as it works to bring the FF 91 Futurist to the market. When FF delivers the FF 91 Futurist, the Company expects to be the first entrant in the ultra-luxury EV segment, particularly in light of the recently announced product and technology upgrade to PT Gen 2.0. Please refer to “Risk Factors – Risks Related to FF’s Business and Industry – FF’s vehicles are in development and the delivery of FF’s first vehicle has experienced, and may continue to experience, significant delays” for a discussion on risks and uncertainties related to the expected commercial production and delivery.
 
Electric Vehicle Industry Overview and Market Opportunity
 
The electric vehicle industry is poised for explosive growth. Based on the Electric Vehicle Outlook 2022 report, a long-term forecast published by Bloomberg New Energy Finance (“BNEF Report”), which forecasts that passenger electric vehicle sales in the U.S., Europe, China and other regions in the world could grow to a total of approximately 20.6 million vehicles in 2025, from 6.6 million vehicles in 2021, and then continue to grow rapidly.
 
Driven by China’s new energy vehicle (“NEV”) credit and European CO2 regulations as well as city policies restricting new internal combustion engine (“ICE”) vehicle sales, electric vehicle sales in China and Europe are estimated to exceed 65% of all passenger electric vehicle sales by 2030, according to the BNEF Report. In addition, since many U.S. households have the infrastructure to install home charging, they are ideal adopters of electric vehicles. According to the BNEF Report, by 2040, over three-quarters of all new passenger vehicles sold will be electric, with markets in China and parts of Europe achieving even higher penetration. For commercial electric vehicles, demand for electric small vans, and trucks are expected to rise quickly, with the U. S., Europe, and China markets expanding faster than the overall market, according to the BNEF Report. In addition, the report notes that light-duty commercial vehicles will see the greatest surge in demand for electric drivetrains among all commercial vehicles. FF believes its U.S. and China dual-home market strategy, as well as its innovative DNA, strong technology portfolio, and emphasis on design, driving experience and personalized user experience will position it well in the passenger electric vehicle segments in these markets. By leveraging the scalable design and modularity of FF’s variable platform architecture, FF is well-positioned to capitalize on growing demands for light, commercial electric vehicles. Additionally, FF’s robust vehicle engineering capabilities and extensive portfolio of technologies offer significant future licensing and strategic partnership opportunities.
 
Key Drivers for Electric Vehicle Market Growth
 
Several important factors are contributing to the popularity of electric vehicles, in both the passenger electric vehicle and light-duty commercial vehicle segments. FF believes the following factors will continue to drive growth in these markets:
 
Increasing Environmental Awareness and Tightening Emission Regulations
 
Environmental concerns have resulted in tightening emission regulations globally, and there is a broad consensus that further emission reductions will require increased electrification in the automotive industry. The cost of regulatory compliance for ICE powertrains is rising sharply due to the natural limitations of traditional ICE technologies. In response, global original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) are aggressively shifting their strategies toward electric vehicles. At the same time, consumers are more concerned about the impact of goods they purchase, both on their personal health and the environment. As consumer awareness increases, zero emission transportation has become a popular and widely advocated urban lifestyle which has accelerated further development of the electric vehicle market. Consumer pressure can also be seen in the commercial
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electric vehicle market. Being encouraged by their customers to reduce their carbon footprints, retailers, logistics companies, and other corporations are highly incentivized to transition their existing fleets or new vehicle purchases toward electric vehicles.
 
Decreasing Battery and Electric Vehicle Ownership Costs
 
Battery and battery-related costs generally represent the most expensive components of an electric vehicle. The falling price of lithium-ion batteries is expected to be among the most important factors affecting electric vehicle penetration in the future. Additionally, the average battery energy density is expected to increase with continuous improvements in battery chemistries, improved materials, advanced engineering, and manufacturing efficiencies. With improvements in battery technology and economies of scale, battery production costs (translated to electric vehicle ownership costs) should continue to decrease. The BNEF Report states that the average lithium-ion battery price has fallen by 89% from 2010 to 2021 to $131/kWh. They project the cost of lithium-ion batteries will fall below $100/kWh by 2024 and continue to decline as advancements in manufacturing and technology continue. According to the BNEF Report, price parity between electric vehicles and ICE is expected to be reached by the mid-2020s in most vehicle segments, subject to variation between geographies.
 
Strong Regulatory Push
 
An increasing number of countries are encouraging the adoption of electric vehicles or a shift away from fossil-fuel-powered vehicles. For example, in the U.S., both states and municipalities have begun to roll out legislation banning combustion engines, with California mandating that every new passenger car and truck sold to be zero-emission by 2035, and every new medium and heavy-duty truck sold be zero-emission by 2045. Fifteen additional U.S. states and Washington, D.C. have announced they intend to follow California’s lead in transitioning all sales of heavy-duty trucks, vans and buses to zero-emission, with potentially more to follow in coming years. In China, the focused regulatory push has been one of the strongest drivers of NEV penetration. In recent years, the Chinese government implemented a series of favorable policies encouraging the purchase of electric vehicles and construction of electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Since 2015, the Chinese regulatory authorities have provided subsidies to purchasers of electric vehicles. Although previous purchase subsidies were reduced in China by approximately half in 2019, the Chinese government has continued to provide subsidies for charging infrastructure construction. Since 2016, the Chinese central finance department has been incentivizing certain local governments with funds and subsidies for the construction and operation of charging facilities and other relevant charging infrastructure, such as charging stations and battery swap stations. Europe, UK, Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Slovenia, and Sweden have all announced plans to phase out combustion engines in some form or fashion by 2030. These legislative tailwinds have already begun to force some legacy OEMs toward electrification, creating a strong need for a modular, flexible, and cost-efficient electric vehicle solution, which will increase competition in the alternative energy vehicle industry.
  
Growth of Electric “Shared Mobility”
 
According to the BNEF Report, despite the significant near-term impact from COVID-19, the global shared mobility fleet (i.e., ride-hailing and car-sharing) is expected to represent more than 15% of the total kilometers traveled by passenger vehicles by 2040, up from less than 5% in 2019. Bloomberg data also predicted that due to electric vehicles’ lower operating costs, they are anticipated to account for over 75% of shared mobility vehicles by 2040, representing a dramatic increase from current low single digit penetration. At the same time, as vehicle consumers move to rely upon shared mobility fleets, and view ride-hailing and car-sharing as a service, such trends may partially offset passenger vehicle demand growth.
 
Corporate History and Milestones
 
FF U.S., the Company’s primary U.S. operating subsidiary, was incorporated and founded in the State of California in May 2014. In July 2014, LeSee Automotive (Beijing) Co., Ltd. (“LeSee Beijing”), which was previously the Company’s primary Chinese operating entity, was formed in China.
 
To facilitate global investment of FF’s business and operations in different jurisdictions, FF established a Cayman Islands holding company structure for the entities within the group. As part of these efforts, Smart Technology Holdings Ltd. (formerly known as FF Global Holdings Ltd.) was incorporated on May 23, 2014 in the Cayman Islands, which directly or indirectly owned and/or controlled 100% of the shareholding of all operating subsidiaries in the group. In March 2017, FF established FF Automotive (China) Co., Ltd., as a Chinese wholly-foreign-owned entity (“WFOE”). As part of a broader corporate reorganization, and to facilitate third-party investment, FF incorporated its top-level holding company, FF Intelligent Mobility Global Holdings Ltd. (formerly known as Smart King Ltd.), in the Cayman Islands in November 2017, as the parent company of Smart Technology Holdings Ltd. To enable effective control over FF’s Chinese operating entity and its subsidiaries
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without direct equity ownership, in November 2017, the WFOE entered into a series of contractual arrangements (“VIE contractual arrangements”) with LeSee Beijing and LeSee Zhile Technology Co., Ltd., which previously held 100% of LeSee Beijing. The VIE contractual arrangement enabled FF to exercise effective control over LeSee Beijing and its subsidiaries, to receive substantially all of the economic benefits of such entities, and to have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in LeSee Beijing. The VIE contractual arrangements were adjusted in the past three years and were terminated on August 5, 2020. LeSee Beijing is currently owned 99% by the WFOE.
 
The organizational chart below shows FFIE’s operating subsidiaries* as of the date hereof:
 
https://cdn.kscope.io/7ea4eb4830f2e41dd46fd795633c7a80-ffie-20221231_g1.jpg 
 
*Excludes subsidiaries with immaterial operations. FF Hong Kong Holding Limited is a holding company subsidiary organized in Hong Kong. As of the date hereof, LeSEE Automotive (Beijing) Co. Ltd., a subsidiary organized in China, has immaterial operations.
PRC Subsidiaries

FFIE is a holding company incorporated in the State of Delaware. “FF U.S.”, FF’s primary U.S. operating subsidiary, was incorporated and founded in the State of California in May 2014. We refer to all our subsidiaries organized in China (including Hong Kong) collectively as the “PRC Subsidiaries.” A complete list of our subsidiaries is set forth in Exhibit 21.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As of February 27, 2023, our only operating subsidiaries in China (including Hong Kong) are FF Automotive (China) Co. Ltd., Ruiyu Automotive (Beijing) Co., Ltd. and Shanghai Faran Automotive Technology Co., Ltd., each of which was organized in the PRC.

How Cash is Transferred Through Our Corporate Organization

The PRC has currency and capital transfer regulations that require us to comply with certain requirements for the movement of capital in and out of the PRC. FFIE is able to transfer cash (U.S. Dollars) to the PRC Subsidiaries through capital contributions (increasing FFIE’s capital investment in the PRC Subsidiaries). FFIE may receive cash or assets declared as dividends from the PRC Subsidiaries. The PRC Subsidiaries can transfer funds to each other when necessary, by way of intercompany loans in the following manners:

FF Hong Kong Holding Limited, as the holding company of all the other PRC Subsidiaries, can transfer cash to any PRC Subsidiary through capital contribution. We note Hong Kong’s banking system is outside PRC mainland’s banking system. As a result, when FF Hong Kong Holding Limited transfers cash to a PRC Subsidiary, it is required to follow the SAFE (as defined below) process and regulation.
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FF Hong Kong Holding Limited, as the holding company of all the other PRC Subsidiaries, may receive cash or assets declared as dividends from the other PRC Subsidiaries.

Among PRC Subsidiaries other than FF Hong Kong Holding Limited, one PRC Subsidiary can provide funds through intercompany loan to another PRC Subsidiary and each such PRC Subsidiary is required to follow the rules of China Banking Regulatory Commission and other relevant Chinese authorities. Additionally, one PRC Subsidiary can transfer cash to its subsidiary through capital contribution, and any PRC Subsidiary may receive cash or assets declared as dividends from any of its subsidiaries.

During 2019, FF Inc., a U.S.-based subsidiary incorporated in California, issued a loan to FF Hong Kong Holding Limited, a holding company subsidiary established in Hong Kong, in the aggregate amount of $1.2 million, which was the only transaction that involved the transfer of cash or assets throughout our corporate structure during 2019. During 2020, LeSee Automotive (Beijing) Co. Ltd., a PRC Subsidiary, assigned to Legacy FF its obligation to pay certain notes issued by a third party in the aggregate principal and accrued interest amount of $26.5 million. Also during 2020, Smart Technology Holdings Ltd., a subsidiary incorporated in the Cayman Islands, transferred to FF Hong Kong Holding Limited $1.7 million in cash, in the aggregate, by way of capital contributions to fund the PRC Subsidiaries’ operations. During 2021, Smart Technology Holdings Ltd. transferred to FF Hong Kong Holding Limited $32.1 million, in the aggregate, by way of capital contributions to fund the operations of the PRC Subsidiaries, including $10.0 million proceeds from the sale of PIPE Shares. In August 2021, Legacy FF extended a loan of $50.0 million to FF Automotive (Zhuhai) Co. Ltd., a PRC Subsidiary, for the purpose of acquiring a technology license agreement with a third party. We transferred cash or assets of $9.1 million from Smart Technology Holdings Ltd. to FF Hong Kong Holding Limited during the fourth quarter of 2021. In 2022 and 2023 to date, FF U.S. extended loans in an aggregated amount of $8.0 million and $3.0 million, respectively, to FF Hong Kong Holding Limited to fund the operations of the PRC Subsidiaries. We will continue to assess the PRC Subsidiaries’ requirements to fund their operations and intend to effect additional contributions as appropriate. As of February 27, 2023, our only operating subsidiaries in China (including Hong Kong) are FF Automotive (China) Co. Ltd., Ruiyu Automotive (Beijing) Co., Ltd. and Shanghai Faran Automotive Technology Co., Ltd., each of which was organized in the PRC. The PRC Subsidiaries have not transferred cash or other assets to FFIE, including by way of dividends. FFIE does not currently plan or anticipate transferring cash or other assets from our operations in China to any non-Chinese entity.

Capital contributions to PRC companies are mainly governed by the Company Law and Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China, and the dividends and distributions from the PRC Subsidiaries are subject to regulations and restrictions of the PRC on dividends and payment to parties outside of the PRC. Applicable PRC law permits payment of dividends to FFIE by our PRC Subsidiaries only out of their net income, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Our operating PRC Subsidiaries are required to set aside a portion of their net income, if any, each year to fund general reserves for appropriations until such reserves have reached 50% of the relevant entity’s registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. A PRC company is not permitted to distribute any profits until any losses from prior fiscal years have been offset. Profits retained from prior fiscal years may be distributed together with distributable profits from the current fiscal year. In addition, registered share capital and capital reserve accounts are also restricted from withdrawal in the PRC, up to the amount of net assets held in each operating subsidiary.

PRC Restrictions on Foreign Exchange and Transfer of Cash

Under PRC laws, if certain procedural requirements are satisfied, the payment of current account items, including profit distributions and trade and service related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies between entities, across borders, and to U.S. investors without prior approval from State Administration of Foreign Exchange (the “SAFE”) or its local branches. However, where Chinese Yuan (“CNY”) is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses, such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies, approval from or registration with SAFE or its authorized banks is required. The PRC government may take measures at its discretion from time to time to restrict access to foreign currencies for current account or capital account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents our PRC Subsidiaries from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy their foreign currency demands, our PRC Subsidiaries may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to FFIE. Further, we cannot assure you that new regulations or policies will not be promulgated in the future that would have the effect of further restricting the remittance of CNY into or out of the PRC. We cannot assure you, in light of the restrictions in place, or any amendment thereof, that the PRC Subsidiaries will be able to fund their future activities which are conducted in foreign currencies, including the payment of dividends.

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Furthermore, under PRC laws, dividends may be paid only out of distributable profits. Distributable profits are the net profit as determined under PRC GAAP, less any recovery of accumulated losses and appropriations to statutory and other reserves required to be made. Our PRC Subsidiaries shall appropriate 10% of the net profits as reported in their statutory financial statements (after offsetting any prior year’s losses) to the statutory surplus reserves until the reserves have reached 50% of their registered capital. As a result, our PRC Subsidiaries may not have sufficient, or any, distributable profits to pay dividends to us. See “Risk Factors–Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China–FFIE is a holding company and, in the future, may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by the PRC Subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements that FFIE may have, and the restrictions on PRC Subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends or make other payments to FFIE could restrict FFIE’s ability to satisfy its liquidity requirements and have a material adverse effect on FFIE’s ability to conduct its business” for a more detailed discussion of the relevant risks relating to restrictions on foreign exchange and transfer of cash.

Requirements Under PRC Laws and Regulations

Under current PRC laws and regulations, each of our PRC Subsidiaries is required to obtain a business license to operate in the PRC. Our PRC Subsidiaries have all received the requisite business license to operate, and no application for business license had been denied.

As our operations in the PRC expand, our PRC Subsidiaries will be required to obtain approvals, licenses, permits and registrations from PRC regulatory authorities, such as the State Administration for Market Regulation, the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”), and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (“MIIT”), which oversee different aspects of the electric vehicle business. As of February 27, 2023, no application by our PRC Subsidiaries for any such approvals, licenses, permits and registrations that are currently applicable to them had been denied, but there can be no assurance that the PRC Subsidiaries will be able to maintain their existing licenses or obtain new ones. See “Risk Factors–Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China–FF may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on internet-related business, automotive businesses and other business carried out by FF’s PRC Subsidiaries.” for a more detailed discussion of the risks relevant to the regulations relating to the operations of the PRC Subsidiaries.

We do not believe any permission is required from any Chinese authorities (including the China Securities Regulatory Commission (the “CSRC”) and the Cyberspace Administration of China (the “CAC”)) in connection with our previous offerings or listing. We do not and immediately prior to the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, will not possess over one million of PRC-based individual’s personal information. After consulting our PRC counsel, Fangda Partners, we believe we are currently not subject to the requirement under the Cybersecurity Review Measures that a network platform operator which possesses more than one million users’ personal information must apply for a cybersecurity review with CAC before listing abroad. In addition, as of February 27, 2023, after consulting our PRC counsel, we are not aware of any other laws or regulations currently effective in the PRC which explicitly require us to obtain any permission from the CSRC or other Chinese authorities for our previous offering or listing, nor had we received any inquiry, notice, or warning from the CSRC or any other Chinese authorities in such respects. The PRC authorities have promulgated new or proposed laws and regulations recently to further regulate securities offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. According to these new laws and regulations and the draft laws and regulations if enacted in their current forms, in connection with our future securities offering activities, we may be required to fulfill filing, reporting procedures with the CSRC, and may be required to go through cybersecurity review by the PRC authorities. However, there are uncertainties with respect to whether we will be able to fully comply with requirements to obtain such permissions and approvals from, or complete such reporting or filing procedures with PRC authorities. For more detailed information, see “Risk Factors–Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China–The approval of, or filing or other administrative procedures with, the CSRC or other PRC governmental authorities may be required in connection with certain of our financing activities, and, if required, we cannot predict if we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing or other administrative procedures” and “Risk Factors–Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China–We face challenges from the evolving regulatory environment regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection. Many of these laws and regulations are subject to change and uncertain interpretation, and any actual or alleged failure to comply with related laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, information security, data privacy and protection could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations” for a more detailed discussion of the relevant risks relating to the applicable of PRC laws and Regulations.

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Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China

FF operates in China, and plans to have significant operations in the future in China (including Hong Kong) through its PRC Subsidiaries, and faces various legal and operational risks associated with doing business in China, which could result in a material change in the operations of our PRC Subsidiaries, cause the value of FFIE’s securities to significantly decline or become worthless, and significantly limit or completely hinder FF’s ability to accept foreign investments, and FFIE’s and our investors’ ability to offer or continue to offer our shares of Class A Common Stock to investors. FF also faces similar risks related to its expansion plans in Hong Kong, which is subject to political and economic influence from China. These risks, each discussed in detail in the section “Risk Factors–Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China” include:

Changes in the political and economic policies of the PRC government may materially and adversely affect FF.

Uncertainties with respect to the Chinese legal system, regulations and enforcement policies could have a material adverse effect on FF.

Foreign currency fluctuations could reduce the value of our Common Stock and dividends paid on our Common Stock.

Changes in the laws and regulations of China or noncompliance with them could adversely affect FF.

Restrictions on PRC Subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends or make other payments to FFIE in the future could restrict FFIE’s ability to satisfy its liquidity requirements and have a material adverse effect on FFIE’s business.

FFIE may be classified as a PRC “resident enterprise,” which would likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to FFIE and its non-PRC enterprise stockholders.

FFIE and its stockholders face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in China resident enterprises through transfer of non-Chinese-holding companies.

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investments in PRC entities may delay or prevent us from making loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC Subsidiaries.

The PRC government can take regulatory actions and make statements to regulate business operations in China with little advance notice, so our assertions and beliefs of the risks imposed by the Chinese legal and regulatory system cannot be certain, and actions related to oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in issuers with substantial operations in China could significantly limit or completely hinder our and our investors’ ability to offer or continue to offer shares of Class A Common Stock $0.0001 par value, and warrants to purchase shares of Class A Common Stock to investors and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

The approval of, or filing or other administrative procedures with, the CSRC or other PRC governmental authorities may be required in connection with certain of our financing activities, and, if required, we cannot predict if we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing or other administrative procedures.

Certain PRC rules and regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to grow in China.

FF may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on internet-related business, automotive businesses and other business carried out by FF’s PRC Subsidiaries.

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We face challenges from the evolving regulatory environment regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection.

In the event that the independent auditor operating in China that FF engages for its operations in China is not permitted to be subject to inspection by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), then investors may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

U.S. regulatory bodies may be limited in their ability to conduct investigations or inspections of our operations in China.

There may be difficulties in effecting service of legal process, conducting investigations, collecting evidence, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us and our management. 

Milestones
 
Significant milestones in FF’s historical development and commercialization of FF’s electric vehicles include the following:
 
In 2015, FF completed its first test mule car, and a fully developed electric vehicle Beta prototype was completed in August 2016.
In January 2016, FF debuted the FF Zero 1 at the 2016 Consumer Electronics Show (“CES”) and obtained a U.S. patent for FF’s proprietary power inverter, the “FF Echelon Inverter.” In November 2016, FF obtained an autonomous vehicle testing permit issued by the State of California, which allowed FF to test self-driving vehicles on public roads with the presence of a safety driver.
In January 2017, FF revealed FF 91, its luxury electric crossover vehicle, at CES 2017. FF 91’s beta prototype set the fastest production-electric vehicle record at the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb in 2017, with a time of 11 minutes and 25.083 seconds.
In November 2017, FF entered into agreements with its Series A investor in connection with its Series A financing and received gross proceeds of $800.0 million through June 2018.
In August 2018, FF completed its first pre-production build of FF 91 in its Hanford, California manufacturing facility. FF also began designing the FF 81 project in January 2018.
In January 2021, Legacy FF, FF Automotive (Zhuhai) Co., Ltd. and FF Hong Kong Holding Limited entered into a cooperation framework agreement with Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co., Ltd. pursuant to which Geely Holding agreed to explore the possibility of joint investment in the technology licensing, contract manufacturing and joint venture with FF and the city, as well as to pursue the possibility of further business cooperation with the joint venture. The joint venture and contract manufacturing projects with Geely Holding are on hold.
In January 2021, FF announced that it entered into a definitive agreement for a business combination with PSAC, with the combined company to be listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market under the ticker symbol “FFIE”.
In July 2021, FF announced that it completed its previously announced merger with PSAC, which resulted in the combined company being renamed Faraday Future Intelligent Electric. The Class A Common Stock and Public Warrants of the Company began trading on The Nasdaq Stock Market on July 22, 2021 as “FFIE” and “FFIEW,” respectively.
In September 2021, FF completed the installation of pilot equipment in the pre-production build area of its Hanford, California facility.
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In October 2021, FF received its final Certificate of Occupancy (“CO”) for a dedicated area for pre-production manufacturing at the facility in Hanford, California.
In December 2021, FF started foundation construction for all remaining production areas in the Hanford facility, including body, propulsion, warehouse and vehicle assembly. Interior foundation work in the production area is complete, major mechanical systems, including electrical and plumbing, have been installed and equipment installation is underway.
In February 2022, FF announced that Myoung Shin had been contracted to manufacture FF’s second vehicle, the FF 81, with SOP scheduled for as early as 2024.
In February 2022, FF unveiled the first production-intent FF 91 EV manufactured at its Hanford, California plant.
In April 2022, FF signed a sourcing agreement for battery packs for the FF 91 with a leading global battery supplier and innovator in lithium-ion technology. The FF 91 battery pack will feature state-of-the-art technology designed to deliver superior power, energy, and charging speeds.
  
In May 2022, FF marked Production Milestone #5 at its Hanford, California manufacturing facility, with the start of installation of all mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems to support equipment installation.
  
In May 2022, FF announced its Flagship brand experience center, to be located in Beverly Hills, California where visitors can experience the brand’s advanced technology, distinctive luxury, and futuristic design.  
In August 2022, FF announced its sponsorship and attendance at the 2022 Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance taking place from August 18-21, 2022. FF’s flagship FF 91 EV was available for demo rides and made a special appearance on the Concept Lawn on August 21, 2022.
In September 2022, FF announced the FF 91 Futurist, the Ultimate Intelligent TechLuxury EV, was officially certified to have a robust rating of 381 miles of EV range from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
In November, 2022, FF announced the CARB has certified the FF 91 Futurist as a zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV). The ZEV program is part of CARB’s Advanced Clean Cars package of coordinated standards that control smog-causing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions of passenger vehicles in California.
In November 2022, FF announced Production Milestone #6, completion of key equipment installation work at its Hanford, California manufacturing Facility.
On December 15, 2022, FF hosted a Global Investor Business Update meeting, announcing plans to start production of FF 91 Futurist in March 2023 (subject to various management assumptions disclosed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K), financing progress and completion of product upgrades. On February 20, 2023, FF announced that March 30, 2023 as its target start of production date, assuming timely receipt of funds from investors.
On January 17, 2023, FF announced that, in the third quarter of fiscal year 2022, it had reached a non-binding Cooperation Framework Agreement with the government of the City of Huanggang in Hubei Province, China (“Huanggang”), for promoting FF’s U.S.-China dual-home market strategy. According to the Cooperation Framework Agreement, FF intends to relocate its FF China headquarters to Huanggang, while maintaining its global headquarters in Los Angeles, California.
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Partnership Program
 
Acting through FF Global Partners LLC (“FF Global”), a major shareholder of the Company, in July 2019 certain current and former executives of the Company established an arrangement which they refer to as the “Partnership Program.” FF Global beneficially owns approximately 15.4% of the voting power of the Company’s fully diluted Common Stock. As described below, the Partnership Program provides financial benefits to certain Company directors, management and employees, which they are required to report to the Company pursuant to the Company’s Investment Reporting Policy. The Partnership Program is administered by FF Global and is not under the Company’s supervision.
 
Purpose of Partnership Program
 
The purpose of the Partnership Program is to help the Company and FF Global succeed, including by helping key Company employees remain aligned with the Company’s mission, interests and economic success, by awarding units representing membership interests in FF Global to such individuals. We have been advised by FF Global that the secretary of FF Global provides recommendations to the FF Global Board of Managers regarding proposed awards based on, among other things:
 
the individual’s position in the Company and/or FF Global,
the importance of the individual’s role in the Company and/or FF Global,
the individual’s historical contributions to the Company and/or FF Global,
the importance of the individual to the achievement of the Company’s and FF Global’s strategic objectives,
the individual’s awards under the Company’s employee stock option plan, and
the individual’s existing holdings of FF Global units.
 The awards under the Partnership Program have in the past been granted exclusively to current or former employees of the Company or its affiliates, FF Global may in the future determine to grant awards to individuals who are not affiliated with the Company.
 
Pursuant to our Investment Reporting Policy, members of our management and other employees are required to report information relating to their investments, including their interests in FF Global. However, since the Company’s board of directors (the “Board”) does not have oversight over the Partnership Program, the Company is not able to assess whether awards made by FF Global under the Partnership Program incentivize management and employee behavior and activities that the Company intends to incentivize, or indeed, whether the Partnership Program effectively works against efforts by the Company to manage its workforce. For example, as part of the special committee of independent directors established by the Board to investigate allegations of inaccurate Company disclosures (“Special Committee”), as further discussed below, it was determined that a Company employee who is also a beneficiary under the Partnership Program deliberately interfered with the Special Committee’s investigation. Although the Company disciplined this employee, the effectiveness of the Company’s disciplinary efforts may have been counteracted by awards this employee has received or expects to receive under the Partnership Program. 
  
Terms of Awards
 
FF Global units awarded under the Partnership Program are purchased by the recipient from FF Global. The recipient pays the purchase price for their common units in 10 annual installments. The units entitle the recipient to receive distributions from FF Global when and if declared by the FF Global Board of Managers on a pro rata basis based on their paid-in capital (after their contributions are all returned). FF Global units are subject to redemption in certain cases, including upon termination of employment with FF Global or the Company or any of their affiliates, at a redemption price that generally is no lower than the unreturned capital contributions.
 
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Scope of Partnership Program
 
FF Global has informed us that to date a total of 34 individuals have received awards under the Partnership Program, that 19 individuals continue to hold such awards, and that all recipients of such awards are current or former directors or employees of the Company or its affiliates. Some of these individuals are or were members of the FF Global Board of Managers. In particular, we understand that (amounts below in single dollars):
 
Dr. Carsten Breitfeld, FF’s former Global CEO and a former director of FFIE, was a non-voting member of the FF Global Board of Managers until May 2022, and previously held FF Global units. In connection with Dr. Breitfeld’s voluntary resignation from FF Global in May 2022 to avoid any potential conflicts of interest, Dr. Breitfeld forfeited his 13,000,000 FF Global units. On November 26, 2022, the Board voted to remove Dr. Breitfeld as Global CEO and, on December 26, 2022, Dr. Breitfeld tendered his resignation from the Board, which was effective immediately.
Matthias Aydt, our Senior Vice President, Product Execution and a director of FFIE, was a member of the FF Global Board of Managers until June 2022, and previously held FF Global units. According to information provided by Mr. Ruokun Jia, a nephew of Mr. Jia who was formerly an Assistant Treasurer of FFIE but who was terminated for conduct during the Special Committee’s investigation, Dream Sunrise is owned by an associate of him. On June 26, 2019, to finance his acquisition of the FF Global units and his then concurrent loan to FF Global in the original principal amount of $4,257,791.97, Mr. Aydt issued a note in the original principal amount of $4,624,391.97 to Dream Sunrise LLC (“Dream Sunrise”). On August 2, 2021, FF Global paid down its loan obligations to Mr. Aydt by $2,071,721.72, by paying down Mr. Aydt’s loan obligations to Dream Sunrise by the same amount, evidenced by that certain Repayment Agreement, dated as of March 7, 2022, by and among Dream Sunrise, FF Global and Mr. Aydt, an amended and restated note dated as of March 7, 2022 from FF Global to Mr. Aydt in the principal amount of $2,186,070.25 (the “Aydt-FF Global Note”), replacing the prior note issued by FF Global to Mr. Aydt on June 26, 2019 in its entirety, and an amended and restated note dated as of March 7, 2022 from Mr. Aydt to Dream Sunrise in the principal amount of $2,552,670.25 (the “Dream Sunrise-Aydt Note”), replacing the prior note issued by Mr. Aydt to Dream Sunrise on June 26, 2019 in its entirety. In order to avoid any potential conflicts of interest that his ownership of FF Global units presents toward his role as a director of FFIE, in June 2022, Mr. Aydt requested that FF Global redeem in full all of his FF Global units. On July 8, 2022, FF Global, Dream Sunrise and Mr. Aydt entered into an Redemption Agreement, pursuant to which in exchange for FF Global’s redemption in full of all of Mr. Aydt’s FF Global units and in satisfaction of all of FF Global’s then outstanding loan obligations to Mr. Aydt under the Aydt-FF Global Note, other than $87,742.95, which represents interests accrued on $366,600 of the principal amount under the Dream Sunrise-Aydt Note, FF Global assumed all of Mr. Aydt’s then outstanding loan obligations under the Dream Sunrise-Aydt Note. As of February 27, 2023, the $87,742.95 that Mr. Aydt owes to Dream Sunrise remains outstanding.
  
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Qing Ye, former director of FFIE and former Vice President of Business Development and FF PAR, previously held FF Global units. On June 26, 2019, to finance his acquisition of the FF Global units and his then concurrent loan to FF Global in the original principal amount of $1,993,009.01, Mr. Ye issued a note in the original principal amount of $2,164,609.01 to Dream Sunrise. On June 13, 2022, FF Global paid down its loan obligations to Mr. Ye by $969,742.08, by paying down Mr. Ye’s loan obligations to Dream Sunrise by the same amount, evidenced by an amended and restated note dated as of June 13, 2022 from FF Global to Mr. Ye in the principal amount of $1,023,266.93 (the “Ye-FF Global Note”), replacing the prior note issued by FF Global to Mr. Ye on June 26, 2019 in its entirety, and an amended and restated note dated as of June 13, 2022 from Mr. Ye to Dream Sunrise in the principal amount of $1,194,866.93 (the “Dream Sunrise-Ye Note”), replacing the prior note issued by Mr. Ye to Dream Sunrise on June 26, 2019 in its entirety. In order to avoid any potential conflicts of interest that his ownership of FF Global units presents towards his role as a director of FFIE, in June 2022, Mr. Ye requested that FF Global redeem in full all of his FF Global units. On June 24, 2022, FF Global, Dream Sunrise and Mr. Ye entered into an Redemption Agreement, pursuant to which in exchange for FF Global’s redemption in full of all of Mr. Ye’s FF Global units and in satisfaction of all of FF Global’s then outstanding loan obligations to Mr. Ye under the Ye-FF Global Note, other than $41,071.17, which represents interests accrued on $171,600 of the principal amount under the Dream Sunrise-Ye Note, FF Global assumed all of Mr. Ye’s then outstanding loan obligations under the Dream Sunrise-Ye Note. As of February 27, 2023, the $41,071.17 that Mr. Ye owes to Dream Sunrise remains outstanding. On January 25, 2023, Mr. Ye resigned as a member of the Board. Mr. Ye remains a consultant of the Company as an independent contractor until November 18, 2023, at which time both parties will mutually reassess the relationship.
Robert Kruse, FF’s former Senior Vice President, Product Execution, previously held 1,500,000 FF Global units. On November 29, 2022, Mr. Kruse resigned from the Company.
Chui Tin Mok, our Global Executive Vice President and the Global Head of User Ecosystem and a director of FFIE (effective January 25, 2023), currently holds 780,000 FF Global units. On June 26, 2019, to finance his acquisition of the FF Global units and his then concurrent loan to FF Global in the original principal amount of $2,264,782.96, Mr. Mok issued a note in the original principal amount of $2,459,782.96 to Dream Sunrise. In May 2022, Mr. Mok returned 3,120,000 of his FF Global units to FF Global pursuant to amendments to the governance documents of FF Global. On March 7, 2022, FF Global paid down its loan obligations to Mr. Mok by $1,101,979.63, by paying down Mr. Mok’s loan obligations to Dream Sunrise by the same amount, evidenced by an amended and restated note dated as of March 7, 2022 from FF Global to Mr. Mok in the principal amount of $1,162,803.33, replacing the prior note issued by FF Global to Mr. Mok on June 26, 2019 in its entirety, and an amended and restated note dated as of March 7, 2022 from Mr. Mok to Dream Sunrise in the principal amount of $1,357,803.33, replacing the prior note issued by Mr. Mok to Dream Sunrise on June 26, 2019 in its entirety.
Hong Rao, our Vice President of I.A.I. (Internet, Autonomous Driving, Intelligence), currently holds 100,000 FF Global units.
In addition to the loans described above with respect to Mr. Aydt and Mr. Ye, a number of our other current and former employees have used funds loaned by Dream Sunrise to fund the purchase of their FF Global units and their concurrent loans to FF Global, including Chui Tin Mok and Jerry Wang.
 Moreover, based on information provided by Mr. Xuefeng Chen and FF Global, pursuant to an offer letter between them dated January 20, 2021, Mr. Xuefeng Chen will become an FF Global partner if he subscribes and pays for 5,000,000 FF Global units and 2,500,000 performance-based units at a subscription price currently set at $0.50 per unit (which could be subject to adjustment based on FFIE’s stock price).
  
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FF Technology
 
Variable Platform Architecture
 
FF believes one of its core technology competencies is its proprietary Variable Platform Architecture (“VPA”). FF’s VPA is a flexible and adaptable skateboard-like platform featuring a monocoque vehicle structure with integrated chassis and body. The platform directly houses the critical components of an electric vehicle, including all-wheel steering, suspension system, brakes, wheels, electric propulsion system, electronic control units and high voltage battery, among others. Each of these component systems has been engineered in-house or in collaboration with suppliers and has been integrated into the FF vehicle design with a view to strive for optimizing performance, efficient packaging, and functional integration.
 
As an integrated structure, the skateboard-like platform can be shortened or lengthened to allow various wheelbases and battery pack sizes along with other options to fit into the platform. It is designed to accommodate up to three motors and support single or dual rear motors and a single front motor. The VPA can be configured in front-wheel-drive (“FWD”), rear-wheel-drive (“RWD”) or all-wheel-drive (“AWD”) configurations. The platform enables scalable vehicle design and improves manufacturing flexibility as well as capital efficiency and allows continuous improvement across product generations. It is also designed to reduce development time for future models leveraging the platform, as most of research and development and a significant portion of the crash structure is integrated into the platform and enables five star and equivalent safety performance. The modular design of the VPA is adaptable to support a wide range of FF vehicles for both consumer and commercial vehicle markets.
 
Propulsion Technology
 
FF has designed an integrated set of powertrain systems ideally suited for FF’s modular VPA, which has been recently upgraded to PT Gen 2.0 to further enhance performance. FF believes its proprietary and patented designed electric powertrain provides a competitive edge in horsepower, efficiency, and acceleration performance.
 
FF Echelon Inverter
 
The inverter in FF’s electric vehicle powertrain governs the flow of high-voltage electrical current throughout the vehicle and serves to power the electric motor, generating torque while driving and delivering energy into the battery pack while braking. The inverter converts direct current from the battery pack into alternating current to drive the permanent magnet motors and provides “regenerative braking” functionality, which captures energy from braking to charge the battery pack. The primary technological advantages of FF’s designs include the ability to drive large amounts of current in a small, physical package with high efficiency and low cost (low inverter losses to provide 98% of inverter efficiency) utilizing patented parallel IGBT technology and can achieve high torque accuracy with fast transient response. The inverter can achieve high reliability due to tab bonds in the high current path. The monitoring system is integrated into the inverter to provide enhanced safety. The patented FF Echelon Inverter is designed to have high power in a compact light weight package with high reliability and durability and can support multiple motor configurations.
 
Integrated Electric Motor Drive Units
 
FF designed its electric motor drive units (including gearbox). The electric drive units are fully integrated with the inverter, transmission, and control unit to create a compact and efficient design. The FF designed drive units have low noise and vibration that can greatly improve driving experience. Depending on the power requirements of each model, the motors can be utilized individually or in two or three motor configurations. The FF 91 Futurist, equipped with three integrated electric drive units (each is designed to deliver up to 350 horsepower), is expected to deliver 1,050 horsepower and 12,510 Newton meters (“Nm”) of torque. FF believes its electric drive unit design is ahead of many of its competitors in terms of performance because of its proprietary, advanced packaging, stator-rotor design, and unique inverter layout.
  
Internet, Autonomous Driving, and Intelligence (“I.A.I.”)
 
FF utilizes an industry-leading automotive grade dual-chip computing system running the Android Automotive operating system. FF’s I.A.I system is built on an enhanced Android Automotive code base and is upgraded with each release of Google’s platform. FF’s vehicles are designed with software OTA capabilities, which allow software and applications in the vehicle to be updated and upgraded wirelessly to deliver continuous enhancements. The vehicle is designed to be connected to FF’s information cloud at all times. When there is a firmware or software update available, FF’s cloud will push an update message to the vehicle to notify the driver to schedule an update. Upgrades will be wirelessly downloaded to the vehicle, installed, and
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enabled, including updates for firmware, operating systems, middleware, and applications. FF’s patented Future OS operating system allows multiple users to login through FF 91, preparing user’s preferences per their cloud based FFID profiles.
 
For autonomous driving, FF’s Level 3 autonomous driving-ready system (“ADAS”) will deliver multiple ADAS features through a combination of FF’s own as well as industry partners’ applications. FF plans to devote resources to autonomous driving research and development and plans to work with partners to deliver full autonomous-driving capabilities in highway and urban driving, as well as parking, across its vehicle lines in the future.
 
FF’s Artificial Intelligence system can actively learn preferences, habits, entertainment, and navigation routines of a user, and associates them with the user’s unique FFID (FF proprietary user ID). FFID provides a unique FF user profile that ensures a consistent experience across the FF Ecosystem, as the user goes from one seat to another or even from one vehicle to another. The seamless design and interface of the in-vehicle infotainment system planned in FF vehicles will offer multiple human-machine interface (“HMI”) options and facilitate a personalized user experience for each seat in the vehicle. The enhanced user experience platform powered by Android enables seamless access to third party applications. FF’s patented Intelligent Aggregation Engine can pull content from multiple video applications and displays content in a single area, removing the need to access multiple applications. The Intelligent Recommendation Engine that may be integrated in certain FF series learns each passenger or driver’s digital media preferences across multiple video applications and provide personalized recommendations. The User Recognition function is embedded in each seat through facial or voice recognition, to deliver a suite of personalized content and preferences.
 
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Electrical/ Electronic (“E/E”) Architecture
 
FF has designed the first generation of FF vehicle series (FF 91) with a domain-centralized E/E architecture, which enables architecture flexibility and maximizes performance efficiency while meaningfully reducing the overall system complexity and weight. The domain-centralized E/E architecture will consolidate the domain functions across five core high-performance domain control units (“DCU”) that manage, compute, and process controls for propulsion, chassis, self-driving, body, and IoV (Internet of Vehicle-connected infotainment system). The E/E architecture of FF’s variable platform architecture is designed with the capacity to support the power and communication requirements necessary for seamless integration with advanced autonomous systems as they evolve. All of FF’s DCUs will support OTA updates and data collection.
 
FF Products
 
FF has developed an extensive portfolio of proprietary technologies that will be embedded and integrated in FF vehicles. FF’s B2C passenger vehicle pipeline over the next five years includes FF 91 series, FF 81 series and FF 71 series. In addition to
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passenger vehicles, leveraging its VPA, FF plans to produce a Smart Last Mile Delivery (“SLMD”) vehicle to address the high growth last mile delivery opportunity.
 
Passenger Vehicles
 
Each of the three passenger vehicle series is planned in two different configurations. All passenger vehicles will share common brand “DNA” of:
 
Intelligence, Internet and connectivity;
  
modern design: styling;
superior driving experience: leading power, performance, and driving range; and
personalized user experience: space, comfort, and internet experience.
The flagship FF 91 series will define the FF brand DNA. This DNA will carry over to FF 81 and FF 71 series. At the top end, the Futurist configurations of each of these series will be designed to push the core brand values to the maximum. With this brand DNA, FF believes its products will be ahead of competition in their respective segments in terms of design, driving experience, interior comfort, connectivity, and user experience.
 
FF 91
 
With a wheelbase of 3,200 mm (126 inches), FF 91, FF’s flagship vehicle, is designed to be a high-performance luxury electric vehicle in the E-segment/Executive/Full-Size or F-segment/Full-size luxury vehicle segment. Based on certain management assumptions, including the timely receipt of $38.4 million to $58.4 million of additional funding, which commitments have been secured on February 3, 2023, where the Company entered into an Amendment No. 6 to Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Sixth Amendment”) with FF Simplicity as administrative and collateral agent and Senyun, FF Top, FF Simplicity, FF Prosperity, Acuitas and other purchasers, and approval by stockholders of the proposal to increase FFIE’s authorized shares of Class A Common Stock from 815,000,000 to 1,690,000,000, increasing the total authorized shares from 900,000,000 to 1,775,000,000, which approval was obtained during the special meeting of stockholders held on February 28, 2023, timely completion of key equipment installation and commissioning work at the ieFactory California in Hanford, California, suppliers meeting their commitments on program deliverables including parts, the implementation and effectiveness of certain expense reduction and payment delay measures, and timely and successful testing and certification, FF expects start of production of the FF 91 Futurist at the end of March 2023, coming off the line in early April, and deliveries to users anticipated to begin before the end of April 2023. Please refer to “Risk Factors – Risks Related to FF’s Business and Industry – FF’s vehicles are in development and the delivery of FF’s first vehicle has experienced, and may continue to experience, significant delays” for a discussion on risks and uncertainties related to the expected production and delivery.
  
FF believes that FF 91 represents a “new species” of electric mobility that combines high performance, precise handling, the comfort of a luxury passenger vehicle, and an intelligent, connected user interface which provides a unique mobility experience to both driver and passenger. It leverages FF’s proprietary VPA, which is a skateboard-like platform structure designed and engineered in-house. This integrated platform provides measurable improvements in overall vehicle structural performance, safety, and handling. FF 91 features a multi-motor configuration and an all-wheel drive system. With three electric motors (one in the front and two in the rear), the top configuration (the FF 91 Futurist) is designed to produce 1,050 horsepower and 12,510 Nm of torque to all four wheels. This enables the FF 91 Futurist to have torque vectoring in the rear for enhanced vehicle dynamics and stability. Its all-wheel drive system offers greater traction control as well as precise power distribution. This technology is designed to deliver superior acceleration of 2.27 seconds from 0 to 60 mph and safety.
 
The variable platform architecture for FF 91 series houses floor-mounted batteries, as well as FF’s proprietary inverter, the FF Echelon Inverter, and integrated electric motor drive units. All three elements, battery, inverter and drive units, support an achieved 381 miles EPA range. FF 91 is expected to charge at up to a 200kW rate. FF plans to provide charging solutions available through FF’s self-owned stores and FF Partner-owned stores and showrooms.
 
The FF 91 aims to deliver a top-quality experience that emphasizes personalization and comfort for all users of the vehicle, including both driver and passengers. In terms of driver comfort, there are six driver-specific screens including an ultra-large heads-up display and slim instrument cluster. The center information display supports on-screen gesturing with the
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swipe of a user’s fingers. The reconfigurable 3D touch steering wheel can allow further user configurability. The FF 91 is a connected device that has a voice-first user interface as well as an open ecosystem for third-party applications and offers an immersive audio, video, and media experience. There are over 100 inches of high-resolution viewing area across 11 displays embedded in the vehicle. These include industry’s first 17-inch front passenger screen and a large 27-inch rear passenger display, allowing passengers to stream their favorite movies, TV shows and live sports while the FF 91 is in motion without driver distraction. The voice-first foundation enables multiple natural commands at once, facilitating the areas of comfort (including air conditioning, seat positions, and doors), productivity (including text, email, and phone calls), entertainment (including media playlists and content search) and destination reaching (including refined search and navigation). The connectivity is powered by “Super Mobile AP”, which consists of up to three 5G modems to realize aggregated high internet speed and great coverage by multiple carriers for high-throughput and continuous coverage. The Artificial Intelligence system and use of FFID (automatically loaded through facial recognition in each seat) carry the personalized user experience from seat-to-seat and vehicle-to-vehicle. The front and rear passengers will have (post production and delivery) individual sound zones, which allow passengers in the front and passengers in the rear to listen to their separate audio content with minimal sound interference. The luxury interior design of the FF 91 Futurist also features “zero gravity” seats in the rear row (with industry leading 48.9 inches rear leg room and 60-degree recline). The vehicle will also offer a spa mode with personalized seat position, ventilation, massage settings, light animations, and ambient sound.
 
For autonomous driving, FF 91 is expected to have an array of cameras, sensors and LIDARs. Once an autonomous driving software solution is validated and released, FF anticipates that its autonomous driving system will deliver several highway autonomy and parking features, and through continuous learning over time, will enable Autonomous Valet Parking (“AVP”) - where the vehicle can autonomously navigate a parking lot, find a parking space and park itself. Eventually, the adaptive learning could allow the driver to use an application to park and summon the vehicle after the driver has exited the vehicle.
 
FF 91 will feature an SAE Level 3 capable autonomous driving system that will deliver multiple ADAS features through a combination of FF’s own as well as partners’ applications. FF plans to devote resources to autonomous driving research and development and plans to work with partners to deliver full autonomous-driving capabilities in highway and urban driving, as well as parking, across its vehicle lines in the future.
 
FF 91 Futurist currently has an estimated starting price of $180,000 (specific pricing to be refined and finalized closer to time of delivery of each vehicle).
 
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FF 81
 
The FF 81 series is FF’s planned second vehicle model and is aimed at the premium mass market in the D-segment or E-segment. The FF 81 will be designed and built on FF’s proprietary VPA enabling more than 60% carry-over of common parts from the FF 91. In addition, parts developed for the FF 81 can be carried back to FF 91 series. The large number of common parts shared across vehicle models creates economics of scale and reduces costs.
 
The FF 81 aims to deliver a premium user experience that emphasizes personalization. The FF 81 is planned with high-performance computing and next generation connectivity with a voice-first user interface and open ecosystem for third-party
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applications. It also has integrated, autonomous driving features and the pertinent hardware capability, including cameras, radars, ultrasound sensors, and optional LIDAR(s).
 
FF 81 Futurist is expected to compete with vehicles such as the Tesla Models S/X, BMW X5 and Range Rover Sport and the like.
 
FF 71
 
FF’s third planned passenger vehicle, the FF 71 series, is expected to be a connected electric vehicle with a more compact size aiming at the mass market in the C-segment or D-segment. The FF 71 will be designed to integrate full connectivity and advanced technology into a smaller vehicle size. FF will start design and development of the FF 71 series after sufficient funding is secured in a timely manner.
 
FF 71 Futurist is expected to compete with vehicles such as the Porsche Macan, BMW X3, and Jaguar I-Pace.


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Commercial Vehicles
 
Smart Last Mile Delivery (“SLMD”)
 
FF plans to provide purpose-built Smart Last Mile Delivery vehicles by leveraging its proprietary technologies developed for FF’s passenger vehicles, to build tailored SLMD configurations to meet the exact customer needs, whether for fleet provider or last mile delivery divisions, while reducing development time and costs.
 
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FF’s technical solutions for advanced connectivity and user experience are well-suited to the SLMD market, where rapid growth is fueling demand for increasingly sophisticated solutions and features. Such features may include:
 
Advanced connectivity and telematics for next-gen fleet management;
OTA upgrade capability;
Third party application integration on touch screen display;
Surround view cameras for improved visibility; and
Equipped with Level 3 ready autonomy and ready-for-future capabilities.
SLMD’s adaptive modular design enables additional use cases (utilities, tradesmen, and others) with minimal additional time or investment.
 
Manufacturing Strategy
 
FF plans to build FF 91 series vehicles in its manufacturing facility in Hanford, California with a projected annual capacity of 10,000 vehicles. FF will conduct operations similar to traditional vehicle manufacturing facilities such as body assembly, paint operations, final vehicle assembly, and end-of-line testing for FF 91 in the Hanford manufacturing facility. FF intends for its vehicle engineering and manufacturing teams to work alongside one another to streamline the feedback loop for rapid product enhancements and quality improvement and will extensively utilize virtual manufacturing simulation methods to validate operations and improve the manufacturing processes.
 
For additional capacity for production of the FF 91 (i.e., exceeding 10,000 vehicles annually), FF can expand production operations in Hanford or seek capacity expansion elsewhere. For the FF 81, FF plans to outsource direct vehicle production to its contract manufacturing partner in South Korea, as FF believes outsourcing will reduce capital investment and accelerate its go-to-market strategy for producing and delivering the FF 81, while providing the benefit of flexibility to scale volume to match demand level. FF may outsource the production of the FF 71 to its contract manufacturing partner in South Korea or a manufacturing partner in China or elsewhere. These plans align with FF’s hybrid, flexible manufacturing strategy. For more information about FF’s manufacturing facility, see the discussion below under the heading “– Facilities.” For more information about FF’s contract manufacturing and supply agreement with Myoung Shin in South Korea, see the discussion below under the heading “– Key Agreements and Partnerships.”
   
Sales, Delivery, and Servicing of Vehicle
 
As of the date hereof, FF has not yet sold any electric vehicles. FF plans to adopt a direct sales model that utilizes a mix of online and offline presence to drive sales. FF’s offline sales network will consist of FF experience centers and FF Partner-owned experience centers. The self-operated experience centers are expected to establish FF brand awareness, while the FF Partner-owned experience centers are expected to expand the sales and distribution network without substantial capital investment by FF.
 
FF recently announced that its first flagship experience center will be located in Beverly Hills, California, and that the Company is currently looking for a second U.S. location. FF expects to open other Company-operated experience centers in the U.S. and China. These locations will operate as experiential showrooms for FF’s electric vehicle models and will provide sales, aftersales, and charging services. The FF Partner-owned stores and showrooms will support FF’s online-to-offline sales model, vehicle delivery, charging service and other user operations.
 
All purchase transactions will be processed online through FF’s website or mobile apps, while FF Partners will support the process (including demonstration drives and providing vehicle information) and receive compensation based on a revenue sharing model and territory and/or services performed. Users accessing FF.com can directly purchase the vehicle online and can choose their closest FF experience centers or FF Partner-operated experience centers and showroom for support. Customers going to an FF Partner-operated experience centers will be supported by staff and directed to FF.com for purchasing. FF believes that once the reputation of FF’s vehicles has been established and users are familiar with FF vehicles, an increasing share of the vehicle sales process is likely to be completed fully online. This will further free up offline capacity and potentially
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increase productivity for FF’s Partner-operated experience centers. As FF will oversee delivery of the vehicles, both FF stores and FF Partner-operated experience centers and showrooms will be able to run their operations in an asset-light fashion.
 
The FF Partner-owned experience centers and showrooms will be the prioritized network for servicing FF’s vehicles, which may include repair, maintenance, and bodywork services. FF will also contract with select third-party service centers to ensure coverage and will deploy mobile service vans based on user demand. To ramp up its service capabilities, FF Eco Sales Company, LLC, FF’s sales subsidiary, has engaged Somit Solutions and plans to engage Cox Automotive to support the FF After-sales Systems and Operations. Somit Solutions will develop the underlying systems required to support all after-sales elements, such as warranty, parts catalog, repair manual systems. Cox Automotive is expected to support FF after-sales operations, such as shipping logistics, as well as leveraging Cox’s extensive service center network. Additionally, FF users will benefit from FF’s connected remote service platform that can address a majority of service issues, perform remote diagnosis and OTA updates, perform artificial intelligence and predictive maintenance, and will be able to offer real-time service and repair status update to vehicle users.
 
FF Suppliers
 
FF has partnered with reputable suppliers in North America, Europe, and Asia. FF has selected and on-boarded suppliers for all critical parts for the FF 91. FF aims to obtain systems, components, raw materials, parts, manufacturing equipment, and other supplies and services from suppliers which FF believes to be reputable and reliable.
 
Intellectual Property
 
FF has significant capabilities in the areas of vehicle engineering, development and design, and has developed a number of proprietary systems and technologies. As of February 27, 2023, FF has been granted approximately 660 patents (with approximately a third issued in the U.S., slightly less than two-thirds issued in China, and the remaining issued in other jurisdictions). These patents are issued to various FFIE entities, including Faraday Future, Faraday & Future, FF Automotive (China) Co., Ltd., Leka Automotive Intelligent Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., and LeEco Eco-Car (Zhejiang) Co., Ltd. FF intends to continue to file additional patent applications with respect to its technology. FF’s patented technology covers UI/UX, powertrain, ADAS, body, hardware/software platform and chassis. Key patents include FF’s inverter assembly, integrated drive and motor assemblies, methods and apparatus for generating current commands for an interior permanent magnet (“IPM”) motor and seamless vehicle access system. These key patents will expire in 2035 or 2036.
   
Key Agreements and Partnerships
 
Strategic Partnership with Myoung Shin, South Korea
 
In February 2022, FF U.S.   entered into a definitive contract manufacturing and supply agreement with Myoung Shin Co., Ltd. (“Myoung Shin”), a South Korea-based automotive manufacturer and parts supplier, to manufacture the Company’s second vehicle, the FF 81. The agreement has an initial term of nine years from the start of production of the FF 81. Pursuant to the agreement, Myoung Shin shall maintain sufficient manufacturing capabilities and capacity to supply FF 81 vehicles to FF in accordance with the Company’s forecasts and purchase orders. FF and Myoung Shin will each manufacture and supply certain FF 81 parts that Myoung Shin will use in the manufacture and assembly of FF 81 vehicles.
 
Potential Partnership with Geely Holding
 
In December 2020, FF U.S. entered into a non-binding memorandum of understanding with Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co., Ltd. (“Geely Holding”), who was also a subscriber in the Private Placement, pursuant to which the parties contemplate a strategic cooperation in various areas including engineering, technology, supply chain, and contract manufacturing.
 
In January 2021, Legacy FF, FF Automotive (Zhuhai) Co., Ltd. and FF Hong Kong Holding Limited entered into a cooperation framework agreement with Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co., Ltd. pursuant to which Geely Holding agreed to explore the possibility of joint investment in the technology licensing, contract manufacturing and joint venture with FF and the city, as well as to pursue the possibility of further business cooperation with the joint venture. The joint venture and contract manufacturing projects with Geely Holding are on hold.
 
On September 7, 2021, the Company paid Liankong, a subsidiary of Geely Holding, which is also a subscriber in the PIPE Financing, in accordance with the Intellectual Property License Agreement dated January 11, 2021, as supplemented on
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September 7, 2021, a one-time amount of $50.0 million for a non-exclusive, perpetual, irrevocable, and sublicensable license to use a platform, the Geely License, owned by Liankong. The Geely platform is an electric automotive chassis that the Company plans to use in the development and production of future electric vehicle models.
 
After-Sales and Service
 
FF U.S. has engaged Somit Solutions to support developing the underlying after-sales Service Systems (U.S. and China), plans to engage Cox Automotive to support Aftersales Operations (U.S. only), and has engaged SalesForce (U.S. only) to deliver and service the FF 91 in compliance with governmental agencies and to support Critical Path to deliver and service the first FF 91, in alignment with the Company’s user journeys.

Strategic Agreement with the City of Huanggang

On January 17, 2023, FF announced that, in the third quarter of fiscal year 2022, it had reached a non-binding Cooperation Framework Agreement with the government of the City of Huanggang in Hubei Province, China (“Huanggang”), for promoting FF’s U.S.-China dual-home market strategy. According to the Cooperation Framework Agreement, FF intends to relocate its FF China headquarters to Huanggang, while maintaining its global headquarters in Los Angeles, California. In accordance with the Cooperation Framework Agreement, both parties are expected to contribute their respective advantages in investment, scientific and technological innovation, industrial transformation, location, and policy. Huanggang is expected to actively assist FF by providing assistance with industrial layout and deployment of resources and providing financial and policy support. The FF China headquarters is expected to be jointly funded by the Huanggang Government guide fund, industrial fund, and FF.
 
Human Capital Management and Resources
 
As of February 27, 2023, FF had 586 employees globally. A majority of FF’s employees are engaged in research and development and related engineering, manufacturing, and supply chain functions. To preserve its current cash position, FF may implement additional headcount reductions, taking into account FF’s financial condition and market conditions.
 
In the future, FF may ramp up additional hiring efforts for its targeted vehicle production and delivery. FF’s targeted hires typically have significant experience working for reputable OEMs, software, internet, consumer electronics and artificial intelligence companies, as well as tier-one automotive suppliers and engineering firms. FF has not experienced any work stoppages and considers its relationship with its employees to be good. None of FF’s employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement or represented by a labor union.
 
The FF team is composed of experienced talent from a variety of industry backgrounds and nationalities with a common goal of creating highly innovative and unique products. FF’s human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating existing and additional employees. FF is committed to the principle of ESG and is committed to building a safer, cleaner world. We have a diverse workforce and are committed to maintaining the highest standards of ethics and behavior.
 
Governmental Regulations, Programs and Incentives
 
FF operates in an industry that is subject to extensive environmental regulation, which has become more stringent over time. The laws and regulations to which FF is subject govern, among others, vehicle emissions and the storage, handling, treatment, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials and the remediation of environmental contamination. Compliance with such laws and regulations at an international, regional, national, provincial and local level is critical to FF’s ability to continue its operations.
 
Environmental standards applicable to FF are established by the laws and regulations of the countries in which FF operates, standards adopted by regulatory agencies and the permits and licenses issued to FF. Each of these sources is subject to periodic modifications and comprise what FF anticipates will be increasingly stringent requirements. Violations of these laws, regulations or permits and licenses may result in substantial administrative, civil or even criminal fines, penalties and orders to cease any violating operations or to conduct or pay for corrective work. In some instances, violations may also result in the suspension or revocation of permits or licenses.
 
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Vehicle Safety and Testing Regulation
 
FF vehicles will be subject to, and must comply with, numerous regulatory requirements established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”), including all applicable U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (“FMVSS”). As a manufacturer, FF must self-certify that its vehicles meet all applicable FMVSSs before the vehicles are sold in the U.S. There are many FMVSSs that will apply to FF vehicles, such as crash-worthiness requirements, crash avoidance requirements and electric vehicle requirements (e.g., limitations on electrolyte spillage, battery retention and avoidance of electric shock after certain crash tests). FF’s future vehicles must fully comply with all applicable FMVSSs. Additionally, there are regulatory changes being considered for several FMVSSs, and FF must comply with all such FMVSS regulations.

In addition to FMVSS, FF will also be required to comply with other federal laws administered by NHTSA, including the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (“CAFE”) standards, Theft Prevention Act requirements, consumer information labeling requirements, early warning reporting requirements regarding warranty claims, field reports, death and injury reports and foreign recalls and owners’ manual requirements. FF must also comply with the Automobile Information and Disclosure Act, which requires manufacturers of motor vehicles to disclose certain information regarding the manufacturer’s suggested retail price, optional equipment and pricing. Further, this law allows inclusion of city and highway range ratings, as determined by EPA, as well as crash test ratings as determined by NHTSA.
 
FF vehicles sold outside of the U.S. will be subject to similar foreign safety, environmental, and other regulations. If those regulations and standards are different from those applicable in the U.S., FF will redesign and/or retest its vehicles. For example, the European Union (“E.U.”) has established new approval and oversight rules requiring that a national authority certify compliance with heightened safety rules, emissions limits and production requirements before vehicles can be sold in each E.U. member state, the initial of which rules were rolled out on September 1, 2020, and there is also regulatory uncertainty regarding how these rules will impact sales in the United Kingdom given its recent withdrawal from the E.U. These changes could impact the rollout of new vehicle features in Europe. FF vehicles sold in China will be subject to compulsory product certification by certification authorities designated by the State Certification and Accreditation Administration Committee. Additionally, for FF vehicles to be approved for manufacture and sale in China, FF vehicles will need to be added to the Announcement of Vehicle Manufacturers and Products issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (“MIIT”) of China, by showing compliance with the relevant safety and technical requirements and other conditions, including among others, the Administrative Rules on the Admission of New Energy Vehicle Manufacturers and Products and the Administrative Rules on the Admission of Passenger Vehicles Manufacturer and Products, and passing the review by the MIIT.
 
Battery Safety and Testing Regulations
 
FF’s battery packs must conform to mandatory regulations governing the transport of “dangerous goods” that may present a risk in transportation, which includes lithium-ion batteries, and are subject to regulations issued by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. (“PHMSA”). These regulations are based on the UN Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods Model Regulations and related UN Manual Tests and Criteria. The regulations vary by mode of transportation when these items are shipped, such as by ocean vessel, rail, truck, or air. FF will complete the applicable transportation tests for its battery packs, demonstrating its compliance with applicable regulations. FF uses lithium-ion cells in its high-voltage battery packs. The use, storage and disposal of FF’s battery packs is regulated under federal law. FF will enter into agreements with third-party battery recycling companies to recycle FF’s battery packs.
 
Environmental Credits
 
In connection with the production, delivery, and placement into service of FF’s zero-emission vehicles, FF may earn tradable credits under certain governmental programs designed to incentivize such activities. FF may sell FF future credits to automotive companies and other regulated entities who can use the credits to comply with emission standards and other regulatory requirements. Under the Environmental Protection Agency’s Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards, FF may generate carbon dioxide emissions credits that can be sold to conventional internal combustion engine vehicle manufacturers. On December 30, 2021, EPA issued new greenhouse gas emissions standards for model years 2023-2026 light duty vehicles that accelerates the annual year-over-year increase in the stringency of the standards from 1.5% to 5-10%. These standards include carbon dioxide emission credit multipliers for the sale of electric vehicles, and EPA predicts that the standards will result in electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles having a market share of approximately 17% by model year 2026. Similarly, on August 25, 2022, the California Air Resources Board approved the Advanced Clean Cars II rule, which amends California’s existing Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation to require an increasing number of zero-emission vehicles starting with model year 2026 and growing to a 100% transition of light duty passenger vehicles to electric vehicles by model year 2035. Under both federal and California regulations, FF may earn salable regulatory credits as vehicle manufacturers are
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required to meet annual emissions or zero-emissions vehicle sales requirements or purchase commensurate offset credits. FF may also earn similar fuel economy and clean fuels credits under other regulatory regimes in the U.S. and abroad.
   
EPA Emissions and Certification
 
The U.S. Clean Air Act requires that FF obtain a Certificate of Conformity issued by the EPA or a California Executive Order issued by CARB certifying that FF vehicles comply with all applicable emissions requirements. A Certificate of Conformity is required for vehicles sold in states covered by the Clean Air Act’s standards. A CARB Executive Order is required for vehicles sold in states that have adopted California’s stricter standards for emissions controls related to new vehicles and engines sold in such states. States that have adopted the California standards as approved by EPA also recognize the CARB Executive Order for sales of vehicles. In addition to California, there are 17 other states that have either adopted or are in the process of adopting the stricter California standards, including New York, Massachusetts, Vermont, Maine, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Washington, Oregon, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Colorado, Minnesota, Nevada, Virginia, and New Mexico. FF recently achieved CARB certification for the FF 91 and achieved an EPA attested range of 381 miles. Starting in model year 2026, FF must also meet California data standardization requirements for zero-emission vehicles, which specifies required vehicle and battery data that must be made available to vehicle owners through a scan tool device.
 
Regulation–Self Driving
 
There are no federal U.S. regulations pertaining to the safety of self-driving vehicles; however, the NHTSA has established recommended guidelines. Certain U.S. states have legal restrictions on self-driving vehicles, and many other states are considering them. This patchwork of licensing requirements increases the legal complexity for FF’s vehicles. In Europe, certain vehicle safety regulations apply to self-driving braking and steering systems, and certain treaties also restrict the legality of certain higher levels of self-driving vehicles. Self-driving laws and regulations are expected to continue to evolve in numerous jurisdictions in the U.S. and foreign countries, and may create restrictions on self-driving features that FF develops.
 
Automobile Manufacturer and Dealer Regulation
 
U.S. state laws regulate the manufacture, distribution and sale of automobiles, and generally require motor vehicle manufacturers and dealers to be licensed in order to sell vehicles directly to consumers in the state. FF will need to secure dealer licenses (or their equivalent) and engage in sales activities for its self-operated experience centers and service centers, while partners in certain states will support by providing services via partner-owned experience centers and showrooms. FF U.S. has received its dealer license from the State of California and is able to sell automobiles across the U.S.
 
In China, automobile suppliers and dealers are required to receive a business license and file and update the relevant information through the information management system for the national automobile circulation operated by the competent commerce department in China. Additionally, according to the Administrative Measures on Automobile Sales, automobile suppliers and dealers shall sell automobiles, spare parts, and other related products that are in compliance with relevant provisions and standards of the state, and the dealers shall, in an appropriate manner, expressly indicate the prices of automobiles, spare parts, and other related products as well as the rates of charges for various services on their business premises, and shall not sell products at higher prices or charge other fees without express indication.
 
Competition
 
FF has experienced, and expects to continue to experience, intense competition from several companies, particularly as the transportation sector increasingly shifts towards low-emission, zero-emission, or carbon neutral solutions. Many established and new automobile manufacturers have entered or have announced plans to enter the alternative fuel and electric vehicle market. Many major automobile manufacturers, such as Tesla, Porsche, Mercedes, Rolls Royce and Audi, have electric vehicles available today. Other current and prospective automobile manufacturers are also developing electric vehicles, for example Nio, xPeng, Li Auto, Lucid Motors, Canoo and Fisker, among others. In addition, several manufacturers offer hybrid vehicles, including plug-in versions. FF directly competes with other pure-play electric vehicle companies targeting the high-end segment, while also competing to a lesser extent with new energy vehicles (“NEVs”) and internal combustion engine (“ICE”) vehicles in the mid to high-end segment offered by traditional OEMs. FF believes the primary competitive factors in the electric vehicle market include, but are not limited to:
 
pricing;
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technological innovation, recently enhanced through PT Gen 2.0;
vehicle performance, quality, safety and reliability;
space, comfort, and user experience;
service and charging options;
design, styling, and interior materials; and
manufacturing efficiency.
FF believes that it will compete favorably with its competitors on the basis of these factors. However, most of FF’s current and potential competitors have greater financial, technical, supply chain, manufacturing, marketing, and other resources than FF. They may be able to deploy greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, supply chain, distribution, promotion, sales, marketing, and support of their electric vehicles. Additionally, FF’s competitors may also have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, lower cost of materials, larger sales forces, broader customer and industry relationships, and other resources than FF does. 

Enforceability

Certain of our current operations are conducted in the PRC through our wholly owned subsidiaries. Moreover, one of our current directors and our Global CEO are residents of the PRC. All or a substantial portion of the assets of these persons are located outside the U.S. and in the PRC. As a result, it may not be possible to effect service of process within the U.S. or elsewhere outside the PRC upon these persons. In addition, uncertainty exists as to whether the courts of the PRC would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or such director predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the U.S. or any state thereof, or be competent to hear original actions brought in the PRC against us or such director predicated upon the securities laws of the U.S. or any state thereof. See “Risk Factors – Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China – There may be difficulties in effecting service of legal process, conducting investigations, collecting evidence, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing original actions in China based on United States or other foreign laws against us and our management.”
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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Below is a summary of material factors that make an investment in FFIE’s Common Stock speculative or risky. Importantly, this summary does not address all the risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional discussion of the risks and uncertainties summarized in this risk factor summary, as well as other risks and uncertainties that we face, can be found under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The below summary is qualified in its entirety by those more complete discussions of such risks and uncertainties. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as part of your evaluation of an investment in FFIE’s Common Stock.

Summary Risk Factors
 
An investment in our Class A Common Stock involves substantial risk. The occurrence of one or more of the events or circumstances described in the section entitled “Risk Factors,” alone or in combination with other events or circumstances, may have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. Important factors and risks that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:
 
Risks Related to FF’s Business and Industry
 
FF has a limited operating history and faces significant barriers to growth in the electric vehicle industry.
FF has incurred losses in its business operations and anticipates that it will continue to incur losses in the future. It may never achieve or sustain profitability.
FF expects its operating expenses to increase significantly in the future, which may impede its ability to achieve profitability.
FF might need to raise additional capital in the near term to start production on the FF 91 Futurist in the event the financing commitments secured as part of the Sixth Amendment are not received in a timely manner. After commencement of the start of production, FF will need to raise additional capital to satisfy its other capital needs.
FF has historically incurred substantial indebtedness and may continue to do so.
FF’s vehicles are in development and the delivery of FF’s first vehicle has experienced, and may continue to experience, significant delays.
For the audits of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, FF’s current and former independent auditor’s report included an explanatory paragraph relating to FF’s ability to continue as a going concern.
FF is taking remedial measures in response to the Special Committee findings. There can be no assurance that such remedial measures will be successful. In addition, there can be no assurance that such remedial measures will be fully implemented in light of the recent corporate governance agreements with FF Top Holding LLC (which, as of February 2023, changed its name to FF Global Partners Investment LLC) (“FF Top”) and FF Global and the recent assessment by the Board of FF’s management structure, including management roles, responsibilities and reporting lines.
FF is involved in an SEC investigation, and may be further subject to investigations and legal proceedings related to the matters underlying the Special Committee investigation.
FF will depend on revenue generated from a single model of vehicles in the foreseeable future.
The market for FF’s vehicles is nascent and not established. FF had 356 non-binding, fully refundable pre-orders as of February 27, 2023 and other non-binding indications of interest, and there can be no assurance that such pre-orders and other indications of interest will be converted into actual binding orders or sales.
FF is dependent on its suppliers, the majority of which are single-source suppliers. The inability of these suppliers to timely deliver necessary components for FF products, and disruption of supply or increases in costs of materials could harm FF’s business.
FF may not develop the complex software and technology systems necessary for the production of its electric vehicles.
FF identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting.
FF’s decision to manufacture its own vehicles in its leased Hanford, California facility does not guarantee FF will not incur significant delays in the production of the vehicles.
FF’s contract manufacturer or other future contract manufacturer may fail to timely produce and deliver vehicles.
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FF has minimal experience servicing and repairing its vehicles. The inability to adequately service vehicles may adversely affect FF’s business.
Industry competition may adversely affect FF’s revenues, increase its costs to acquire new customers, and hinder its ability to acquire new customers.
FF’s go-to-market and sales strategy will require substantial investment and commitment of resources and is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.
FF faces risks related to natural disasters, climate change, health epidemics and pandemics, terrorist attacks, civil unrest and other circumstances outside its control.
If FF is unable to attract and/or retain key employees and hire qualified Board members, officers and other individuals, its ability to compete could be harmed.
FF has elected to protect some of its technologies as trade secrets rather than as patents; however, this approach has certain risks and disadvantages.
FF is subject to cybersecurity risks relating to its various systems and software, or that of any third party that FF relies upon, and any failure, cyber event or breach of security could prevent FF from effectively operating its business, harm its reputation or subject FF to significant liability.
FF and its suppliers and manufacturing partners may be subject to increased environmental and safety or other regulations and disclosure rules resulting in higher costs, cash expenditures, and/or sales restrictions.
FF may be subject to risks associated with autonomous driving technology.
FF’s vehicles will make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.
Yueting Jia, FF’s founder and Chief Product and User Ecosystem Officer, is closely associated with the Company’s image and brand, and his public image may color public and market perceptions of FF. Negative information about Mr. Jia may adversely impact FF. Disassociating from Mr. Jia could also adversely impact FF.
Yueting Jia is subject to restrictions in China that may continue if not all creditors participating in his personal bankruptcy restructuring plan request his removal from such restrictions. These restrictions may adversely impact FF’s China strategy.
Yueting Jia and FF Global, over which Mr. Jia exercises significant influence, have control over the Company’s management, business and operations, and may use this control in ways that are not aligned with the Company’s business or financial objectives or strategies or that are otherwise inconsistent with the Company’s interests.
Disputes with our stockholders are costly and distracting.
The composition of FFIE’s Board has changed, and may further change prior to or immediately following completion of the Company’s annual meeting of stockholders (the “Annual Meeting”).
FF is subject to legal proceedings and claims arising in and outside the ordinary course of business.
FFIE is not in compliance with Delaware General Corporation Law because it has been more than 13 months since FFIE’s last Annual Meeting.
 Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China
 
FF operates in China, and plans to have significant operations in the future in China (including Hong Kong) through its subsidiaries organized in the PRC (including Hong Kong) (collectively, the “PRC Subsidiaries”), and faces various legal and operational risks associated with doing business in China, which could result in a material change in the operations of our PRC Subsidiaries, cause the value of FFIE’s securities to significantly decline or become worthless, and significantly limit or completely hinder FF’s ability to accept foreign investments, and our investors’ ability to offer or continue to offer our shares of Class A Common Stock to investors. FF also faces similar risks related to its expansion plans in Hong Kong, which is subject to political and economic influence from China. These risks, each discussed in detail in the section “Risk Factors – Risks Related to FF’s Operations in China,” include:
 
Changes in the political and economic policies of the PRC government may materially and adversely affect FF.
Uncertainties with respect to the Chinese legal system, regulations and enforcement policies could have a material adverse effect on FF.
Foreign currency fluctuations could reduce the value of our Common Stock and dividends paid on our Common Stock.
Changes in the laws and regulations of China or noncompliance with them could adversely affect FF.
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Restrictions on PRC Subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends or make other payments to FFIE in the future could restrict FFIE’s ability to satisfy its liquidity requirements and have a material adverse effect on FFIE’s business.
FFIE may be classified as a PRC “resident enterprise,” which would likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to FFIE and its non-PRC enterprise stockholders.
FFIE and its stockholders face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in China resident enterprises through transfer of non-Chinese-holding companies.
PRC regulation of loans to and direct investments in PRC entities may delay or prevent us from making loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC Subsidiaries.
The PRC government can take regulatory actions and make statements to regulate business operations in China with little advance notice, so our assertions and beliefs of the risks imposed by the Chinese legal and regulatory system cannot be certain, and actions related to oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in issuers with substantial operations in China could significantly limit or completely hinder our and our investors’ ability to offer or continue to offer shares of Class A Common Stock $0.0001 par value, and warrants to purchase shares of Class A Common Stock to investors and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless.
The approval of, or filing or other administrative procedures with, the CSRC or other PRC governmental authorities may be required in connection with certain of our financing activities, and, if required, we cannot predict if we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing or other administrative procedures.
Certain PRC rules and regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to grow in China.
FF may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on internet-related business, automotive businesses and other business carried out by FF’s PRC Subsidiaries.
We face challenges from the evolving regulatory environment regarding cybersecurity, information security, privacy and data protection.
In the event that the independent auditor operating in China that FF engages for its operations in China is not permitted to be subject to inspection by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), then investors may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection.
U.S. regulatory bodies may be limited in their ability to conduct investigations or inspections of our operations in China.
There may be difficulties in effecting service of legal process, conducting investigations, collecting evidence, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us and our management.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
 
FFIE has not paid dividends on the Class A Common Stock and its ability to do so in the future will be subject to its subsidiaries’ ability to distribute cash to it.
FFIE is subject to complex public company rules and regulations, and there can be no assurance that FFIE will be able to comply with them. FFIE will continue to incur increased burdens as a public company.
There can be no assurance that FFIE will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq. FFIE has received written notices from the SEC regarding its non-compliance with Nasdaq minimum bid price and annual stockholder meeting requirements.
FF may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, or FF may be subject to restructuring, impairment or other charges.
The price of the Class A Common Stock has been and may continue to be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Sale by certain holders of the Class A Common Stock may negatively impact the market price of the Class A Common Stock, while such holders may still receive significant proceeds.
FF’s tax obligations and related filings have become significantly more complex and subject to greater risk of scrutiny.
The issuance of additional shares of Common Stock, including upon full conversion of the principal amount of all outstanding SPA Notes and exercise of all outstanding SPA Warrants and ATW NPA Warrants, and/or the implementation of the full ratchet anti-dilution price protection in the SPA Notes and SPA Warrants and the issuance of shares pursuant to the SEPA, would substantially dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders.
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FFIE has granted preferential director nomination rights to certain investors which may cause FFIE to fall out of compliance with Nasdaq listing rules.
Concentration of ownership may delay or prevent a change in control. Certain of FFIE’s defensive measures could prevent a takeover that stockholders may consider favorable.
Claims for indemnification by our directors and officers may reduce our available funds, including for successful third-party claims against us.
FFIE’s dual-class structure may depress the trading price of the Class A Common Stock. In addition, upon approval by FFIE stockholders of an amendment to the Amended and Restated Charter pursuant to the Amended Shareholder Agreement, the voting power of the Class B Common Stock held by FF Top will convert from one vote per share to 10 votes per share and, upon FFIE achieving an equity market capitalization of $3.0 billion, the voting power of the Class B Common Stock will convert from 10 votes per share to 20 votes per share, each of which will entitle FF Top to have substantial influence over FFIE’s corporate matters. If Nasdaq considers FFIE a “controlled company” following such conversions of the Class B Common Stock, FFIE may qualify for exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.
Negative analyst coverage could affect FFIE’s share price and trading volume.
FFIE’s reduced reporting obligations as an “emerging growth company” could make the Common Stock less attractive to investors.
If FFIE implements a reverse stock split, the liquidity of its Common Stock and warrants may be adversely effected.
Risks Related to FF’s Business and Industry
 
FF has a limited operating history and faces significant barriers to growth in the electric vehicle industry.
 
FF was founded in 2014 and has built several prototype and production-intent vehicles. However, to date, FF has not started commercial production of its first electric vehicle. Based on certain management assumptions, including the timely receipt of $38.4 million to $58.4 million of additional funding, which commitments have been secured as part of the Sixth Amendment, and approval by stockholders of the proposal to increase FFIE’s authorized shares of Class A Common Stock from 815,000,000 to 1,690,000,000, increasing the total authorized shares from 900,000,000 to 1,775,000,000, which approval was obtained during the special meeting of stockholders held on February 28, 2023, timely completion of key equipment installation and commissioning work at the ieFactory California in Hanford, California, suppliers meeting our supply chain requirements, the implementation and effectiveness of certain expense reduction and payment delay measures, and timely and successful testing and certification, FF expects to start production of the FF 91 Futurist at the end of March 2023, coming off the line in early April 2023, and delivery to users anticipated to begin before the end of April 2023. There is no assurance FF will be able to timely receive sufficient funding under existing financing commitments to start production on the FF 91 Futurist on that timeline or at all. If unable to receive sufficient funding, FF will be required to obtain new financing commitments, which may not be available to it under reasonable commercial terms. Further, there cannot be any assurance that FF will be able to develop the manufacturing capabilities and processes, or secure reliable sources of component supply to meet the quality, engineering, design or production standards, or the required production volumes to successfully grow into a viable business. There is also no assurance that FFIE stockholder approval of an authorized share increase will be obtained in a timely manner or at all.
 
Furthermore, even if FF achieves commercial production of electric vehicles, it faces significant barriers to growth in the electric vehicle industry, including continuity in development and production of safe and quality vehicles, brand recognition, customer base, marketing channels, pricing policies, talent management, value-added service packages and sustained technological advancement. If FF fails to address any or all of these risks and barriers to entry and growth, its business and results of operation may be materially and adversely affected.
 
Given FF’s limited operating history, the likelihood of its success must be evaluated especially considering the risks, expenses, complications, delays and the competitive environment in which it operates. There is, therefore, no assurance that FF’s business plan will prove successful. FF will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by early commercial stage companies, including scaling its infrastructure and headcount, and may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties or delays in connection with its growth. In addition, due to the capital-intensive nature of FF’s business, it can be expected to continue to incur substantial operating expenses without generating sufficient revenues to cover those expenditures. There is no assurance FF will ever be able to generate revenue, raise additional capital when required or operate profitably. Any investment in FF is therefore highly speculative.
 
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FF has incurred losses in the operation of its business and anticipates that it will continue to incur losses in the future. It may never achieve or sustain profitability.
 
The design, engineering, manufacturing, sales and service of intelligent, connected electric vehicles is a capital-intensive business. FF has incurred losses from operations and has had negative cash flows from operating activities since inception. FF incurred a net loss of $552.1 million and $516.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Net cash used in operating activities was $383.1 million and $339.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Since inception, FF has made significant investments in technology to implement the recently announced FF Product and Technology Upgrade Generation 2.0 (“PT Gen 2.0”), as well as in vehicle design, development and tooling, construction of manufacturing facilities, employee compensation and benefits and marketing and branding. PT Gen 2.0 was achieved through the upgrade of 26 major systems and components. These upgrades consist of 13 key upgrades throughout the powertrain, battery, charging, chassis, and interior in EV areas, as well as 13 key upgrades due to improvements in computing, sensing, communication and user interaction and significant performance improvements to the FF 91 Futurist. FF expects to continue or increase such investments; however, there can be no assurance these investments will result in the successful and timely delivery of FF 91 series or subsequent vehicle programs, or at all.
 
FF may incur unforeseen expenses, or encounter difficulties, complications, and delays in delivering FF 91 series, and therefore may never generate sufficient revenues to sustain itself. Even if FF brings FF 91 series to market, it may continue to incur substantial losses for reasons including the lack of demand for FF 91 series and the relevant services, vehicle service and warranty costs, increasing competition, challenging macroeconomic conditions, regulatory changes and other risks discussed herein, and so it may never achieve or sustain profitability.
 
Given the risks associated with FF’s ability to obtain additional funding to execute on its plans to develop and deliver vehicles and begin to generate revenue, the amount of additional funding needed could differ from earlier estimates and the timing to reach profitability and positive cash flows could be further delayed. Based on delays in obtaining sufficient funding relative to its plans, as well as the likelihood that FF’s plan will be implemented successfully, timely, or at all, once such funding is in place, FF cannot estimate a breakeven point at this time.
 
FF has evaluated a range of alternative operating scenarios, including a scenario where only the FF 91 series is initially developed and sold, followed by development and sales of other planned vehicles in the portfolio (FF 81 series, FF 71 series, and SLMD). FF is operating under this scenario, currently focused towards the start of production of the FF 91 series, whereby spending on the development of the FF 91 series is potentially leverageable and applicable to future models. FF has ceased incremental spending on the development of future vehicles with the goal of reducing new capital requirements in 2023.
 
FF expects its operating expenses to increase significantly in the future, which may impede its ability to achieve profitability.
 
FF expects to further incur significant operating costs which will impact its profitability, including research and development expenses as it introduces new models and improves existing models, capital expenditures in the expansion of its manufacturing capacities, additional operating costs and expenses for production ramp-up, raw material procurement costs, general and administrative expenses as it scales its operations, and sales, marketing, and distribution expenses as it builds its brand and markets its vehicles. Additionally, it may incur significant costs once it delivers the FF 91 series, including vehicle service and warranty expenses.
 
FF’s ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on its ability to successfully market its vehicles and other products and services, but also to control costs. Ultimately, FF may not be able to adequately control costs associated with its operations for reasons outside its control, including the cost of raw materials such as aluminum, steel and lithium-ion cells. Substantial increases in such costs could increase FF’s cost of revenue and its operating expenses and reduce its margins. Additionally, macro events such as the ongoing global pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine have adversely affected supply chains, impacting FF’s ability to control and manage costs. Additionally, currency fluctuations, tariffs or shortages in petroleum and other economic or political conditions could result in significant increases in logistics and freight charges and raw material costs. If FF is unable to design, develop, manufacture, market, sell and service its vehicles, including providing service in a cost-efficient manner, its margins, profitability, and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.
 
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The rate at which FF may incur costs and losses in future periods compared to current levels may increase significantly, as it:
 
continues to develop FF 91, FF 81, and FF 71 series and Smart Last Mile Delivery (“SLMD”) electric vehicle models;
develops and equips its manufacturing facility in Hanford, California to produce FF 91, and prepares for manufacturing capabilities in South Korea and other potential manufacturing options, and in China for additional production capacity for FF 91 and other electric vehicle models;
builds up inventories of parts and components for FF 91;
develops and expands its design, development, maintenance, servicing and repair capabilities;
opens offline FF stores; and
increases its sales and marketing activities.
These efforts may be more expensive than FF currently anticipates, and these efforts may not result in increases in revenues, which could further increase its losses. As FF is seeking funding to realize its business operations plan based on its estimated capital requirements, any cost overruns that deviate from FF’s estimates may materially and adversely affect its business prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
 
FF’s operating results forecast relies in large part upon assumptions and analyses developed by its management. If these assumptions and analyses prove to be incorrect, its actual operating results could suffer.
 
FF operates in a capital-intensive industry which requires significant cash to fund its operations. FF expects its capital expenditures to continue to be significant for the foreseeable future as it continues to develop and grow its business. In response to the delay in obtaining funding commitments and negative macroeconomic trends in the industry in which FF operates, such as supply chain pressures and cost inflation, FF has identified and begun implementation of certain cost reduction and cash conservation measures, including headcount and temporary salary reductions, supplier payment deferrals, and other cost-cutting measures. FF does not believe that the incremental impact of these cost reduction and cash conservation measures will have a material adverse impact on the timing of delivery of the FF 91 Futurist. There can be no assurance that FF will be successful in implementing these measures. The Company expects to start production of a saleable FF 91 Futurist at the end of March 2023, coming off the line in early April 2023, with deliveries to users to begin before the end of April 2023, subject to the timely receipt of $38.4 million to $58.4 million of additional funding, which commitments have been secured as part of the Sixth Amendment, and approval by stockholders of the proposal to increase FFIE’s authorized shares of Class A Common Stock from 815,000,000 to 1,690,000,000, increasing the total authorized shares from 900,000,000 to 1,775,000,000, which approval was obtained during the special meeting of stockholders held on February 28, 2023. FF is focused on and committed to achieving the start of production of the FF 91 Futurist according to this timeline subject to the constraints of funding available at this time, which is limited relative to its previous plans. In response, FF reduced its initial production scope and volume to allow it to start production and delivery of the FF 91 Futurist using the projected funding. Under this plan, FF is expected to defer the completion of construction of certain areas in its manufacturing facility. Depending upon the success of the delivery of the FF 91 Futurist as well as the ability of FF to raise additional funding before reaching breakeven, FF expects that the ramp up of production will be slower relative to previous plans.
 
The Company has received financing commitments for the funds required for the start of production of the FF 91 Futurist assuming timely receipt of funds. Since August 14, 2022, the Company has obtained commitments from several investors totaling $267.0 million in convertible note financing and in committed forced warrant exercise proceeds, subject to certain conditions. A total of $171.4 million under these commitments has been funded to date ($150.4 million net of original discount and transaction costs). Of the remaining balance of $95.6 million, an amount of $20.0 million is committed and contingent upon delivery of the FF 91 Futurist to the first batch of bona fide customers, an amount of $9.0 million is expected to be funded by the end of Q1 2023 and an amount of $56.0 million is expected to be funded within five business days after the satisfaction or waiver of certain conditions, including for a portion of such financing receipt of Company stockholder approval of such financing and an effective registration statement for the shares underlying the applicable notes. In addition, the Company had the right to force the exercise of the warrants underlying the Warrant Reserve, as such term is defined in Note 14, Stockholders’ Equity, in the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2022 included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for a total exercise price of $20.0 million in cash ($10.6 million remaining to be funded to the Company), upon the completion of
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certain milestones and conditions. The right to force exercise of the Warrant Reserve expired upon the holders exercising their warrants during 2023. In February 2023, Senyun and a purchaser affiliated with ATW Partners LLC exercised 20% of their respective options to purchase additional senior secured notes and SPA Warrants of the Company under the same terms as the Incremental Notes as such term is defined in Note 10. Notes Payable in the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2022 included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Company received aggregated gross proceeds of $18.0 million ($16.2 million net of original issuance discount) in exchange for such issuances. Further, pursuant to the SEPA, the Company has the sole right, but not the obligation, to direct Yorkville from time to time to purchase up to $200.0 million of Class A Common Stock during the commitment period ending November 11, 2025, with an option to increase such amount to $350.0 million at FF’s option, however, FF shall not have the ability to draw funds until the effectiveness of a registration statement for the resale of such shares, the approval of an increase to its authorized shares, and the satisfaction of certain other conditions. On December 8, 2022, FFIE filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-268722) to register shares of Class A Common Stock to be issued under the SEPA.
 
The Company has continued financing discussions with multiple parties, but has experienced delays in the past in securing additional funding commitments relative to its business plan included in the Form 8-K filed on July 25, 2022, which have exacerbated the supply chain pressures on FF’s business. These factors, in addition to the continued rise in inflation and other challenging macroeconomic headwinds, have led FF to take steps to preserve its cash position, including reducing spending, extending payment cycles and implementing other similar measures, as well as working with suppliers to re-evaluate production schedules and timing. FF expects that it will be required to raise additional capital to fund its operations to support the ramp-up of production of the FF 91 Futurist to generate revenues to put it on a path to cash flow break-even. If our ongoing capital raising efforts are unsuccessful or significantly delayed, or if we are unable to satisfy the closing conditions under any of our financing agreements, or if we experience prolonged material adverse trends in our business, our planned and actual production will be further delayed or decreased, and our actual use of cash and revenue may also change. While FF is actively engaged in negotiations with potential financing sources, there is no guarantee that it will be able to raise additional capital on terms acceptable to it or at all. In addition to the risk that FF’s assumptions and analyses may prove incorrect, the projections may underestimate the professional fees and other costs to be incurred related to the pursuit of various financing options currently being considered and ongoing legal risks.
 
FF’s cash needs after the start of production and delivery of the FF 91 Futurist will depend on the extent to which FF’s actual costs vary from FF’s estimates and FF’s ability to control these costs and raise additional funds. Any challenges in supplier engagements, delays in ramping capacity or labor at the Hanford facility or for sales and service engagements, rising prices of materials, or ongoing global supply chain disruptions may further increase the need for additional capital to produce and deliver the FF 91 series. In particular, recently, some suppliers have threatened to terminate their relationship with FF because of late payments or requested accelerated payments and other terms and conditions as a result of our past payment history and concerns about the Company’s financial condition, leading to less favorable payment terms than FF had anticipated, and delaying or putting at risk certain deliveries. FF is in active negotiations with these suppliers to minimize these risks and has been successful to date in retaining the majority of key suppliers. Apart from the FF 91 series, substantial additional capital will be required to fund operations, research, development, and design efforts for future vehicles.
 
FF’s operating results forecast largely relies on management’s assumptions and analyses, which could be incorrect. Additionally, there cannot be any assurance that FF’s current fundraising efforts will be successful. Whether actual operating and financial results and business developments will be consistent with FF’s expectations and assumptions as reflected in the forecast depends on a number of factors, many of which are outside FF’s control, including, but not limited to:
 
whether it can obtain sufficient and timely capital to sustain and grow its business, including the development of future vehicle models;  
  
its ability to manage growth;
  
whether it can manage relationships with key suppliers;
  
whether it can sign up and manage relationships with business partners for them to invest in and operate sales and service centers;
  
the ability to obtain necessary regulatory approvals;
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demand for its products and services in its target markets;
  
the timing and cost of new and existing marketing and promotional efforts;
  
competition, including established and future competitors;
  
its ability to retain existing key management, to integrate recent hires and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel;
the overall strength and stability of domestic and international economies;
  
regulatory, legislative and political changes; and
  
consumer spending habits.
Specifically, FF’s results forecast is based on projected purchase prices, unit costs for materials, manufacturing, labor, packaging and logistics, warranty, sales, marketing and service, tariffs, and its projected number of orders for the vehicles with factors such as industry benchmarks taken into consideration. Any of these factors could turn out to be different than those anticipated. Unfavorable changes in any of these or other factors, most of which are beyond FF’s control, could materially and adversely affect its business, prospects, financial results and results of operations.
 
FF might need to raise additional capital in the near term to start production on the FF 91 Futurist in the event the financing commitments secured as part of the Sixth Amendment are not received in a timely manner. After commencement of the start of production, FF will need to raise additional capital to satisfy its other capital needs.

FF operates in a capital-intensive industry which requires significant cash to fund its operations. FF expects its capital expenditures to continue to be significant for the foreseeable future as it continues to develop and grow its business. In response to the delay in obtaining funding commitments and negative macroeconomic trends in the industry in which FF operates, such as supply chain pressures and cost inflation, FF has identified and begun implementation of certain cost reduction and cash conservation measures, including headcount and temporary salary reductions, supplier payment deferrals, and other cost-cutting measures. FF does not believe that the incremental impact of these cost reduction and cash conservation measures will have a material adverse impact on the timing of delivery of the FF 91 Futurist. As of the date hereof, the Company has received financing commitments for the funds required for the start of production of the FF 91 assuming timely receipt of funds. FF might need to raise additional capital in the near term to start production on the FF 91 in the event the financing commitments secured as part of the Sixth Amendment are not received in a timely manner. After commencement of the start of production, FFIE will need to raise additional capital to satisfy its other capital needs. The Company expects to start production of a saleable FF 91 Futurist at the end of March 2023, coming off the line in early April, with deliveries to users to begin before the end of April, subject to the timely receipt of $38.4 million to $58.4 million of additional funding, which commitments have been secured as part of the Sixth Amendment, and approval by stockholders of the proposal to increase FFIE’s authorized shares of Class A Common Stock from 815,000,000 to 1,690,000,000, increasing the total authorized shares from 900,000,000 to 1,775,000,000, which approval was obtained during the special meeting of stockholders held on February 28, 2023. There can be no assurance that FF will be successful in implementing these measures. As of February 27, 2023, FF’s cash position was $37.6 million, including restricted cash of $2.1 million.

Given that FF had 356 non-binding, fully refundable pre-orders as of February 27, 2023 and vehicle deliveries were not made in 2022, no revenue was realized in 2022. In addition to the risk that FF’s assumptions and analyses may prove incorrect, the projections may underestimate the professional fees and other costs to be incurred related to the pursuit of various financing options currently being considered and ongoing legal risks. FF will be required to seek additional capital to fund operations.

Since August 14, 2022, the Company has obtained commitments from several investors totaling $267.0 million in convertible note financing and in committed forced warrant exercise proceeds, subject to certain conditions. A total of $171.4 million under these commitments has been funded to date ($150.4 million net of original discount and transaction costs). Of the remaining balance of $95.6 million, an amount of $20.0 million is committed and contingent upon delivery of the FF 91 to the first batch of bona fide customers, an amount of $9.0 million is expected to be funded in February 2023 and an amount of $56.0 million is expected to be funded within five business days after the satisfaction or waiver
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of certain conditions, including for a portion of such financing receipt of Company stockholder approval of such financing and an effective registration statement for the shares underlying the applicable notes. In February 2023, Senyun and a purchaser affiliated with ATW Partners LLC exercised 20% of their respective options to purchase additional senior secured notes and SPA Warrants of the Company under the same terms as the Incremental Notes. The Company received aggregated gross proceeds of $18.0 million ($16.2 million net of original issuance discount) in exchange for such issuances.
 
The Company is continuing financing discussions with multiple parties, but has experienced delays in securing additional funding commitments, which have exacerbated the supply chain pressures on FF’s business. There can be no assurance that FF will be able to successfully obtain additional incremental convertible senior secured note purchasers under the SPA or other debt or equity financing in a timely manner or on acceptable terms, if at all. In particular, FF is currently conducting due diligence on potential financing sources. This process has been time consuming and may result in FF not being able to consummate any financing from these or other financing sources on a timely basis or at all. There can also be no assurance that we will be able to satisfy the closing conditions under our financing agreements. If we are unable to raise sufficient additional funds in the near term, we may be required to further delay our production and delivery plans for the FF 91 Futurist, reduce headcount, liquidate our assets, file for bankruptcy, reorganize, merge with another entity, and/or cease operations.
 
FF’s cash needs after the delivery of the FF 91 Futurist will depend on the extent to which FF’s actual costs vary from FF’s estimates and FF’s ability to control these costs and raise additional funds. Any challenges in supplier engagements, delays in ramping capacity or labor at the Hanford facility or for sales and service engagements, rising prices of materials, or ongoing global supply chain disruptions may further increase the need for additional capital to produce and deliver the FF 91 series. In particular, recently, some suppliers have threatened to terminate their relationship with FF because of late payments or requested accelerated payments and other terms and conditions as a result of our past payment history and concerns about FF’s financial condition, leading to less favorable payment terms than FF had anticipated, and delaying or putting at risk certain deliveries. FF is in active negotiations with these suppliers to minimize these risks and has been successful in retaining the majority of key suppliers. Apart from the FF 91 series, substantial additional capital will be required to fund operations, research, development, and design efforts for future vehicles. FF is exploring various alternatives to raise additional funding and finance its ongoing operations, including equipment leasing and construction financing of FF’s Hanford, California production facility, secured syndicated debt financing, convertible notes, working capital loans, and equity offerings, among other options. The particular funding mechanisms, terms, timing, and amounts are dependent on FF’s assessment of opportunities available in the marketplace and the circumstances of the business at the relevant time.
 
It is difficult to predict the demand for FF’s vehicles and appropriately budget for such expenses; and FF may have limited insight into trends that could emerge and affect its business. As a company, FF does not have experience manufacturing vehicles, and as such, there is no historical basis for FF to make judgments on the demand for its vehicles. If FF is unable to accurately estimate the demand for its vehicles, match the timing and quantities of component purchases to actual needs or successfully implement inventory management and other systems to accommodate the increased complexity in FF’s supply chain, FF may incur unexpected production disruption, and storage, transportation and other costs, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
 
FF may raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity related or debt securities, or through obtaining credit from financial institutions or governmental organizations. FF cannot be certain that additional funds will be available on favorable terms when required, or at all, and any such financing is expected to dilute FF’s stockholder value. If FF is unable to obtain funding in a timely manner or on commercially acceptable terms, or at all, its financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
 
To the extent FF were to further meaningfully delay the production and delivery of the FF 91 series, potential consumers may lose confidence in FF, and customers who have placed pre-orders for FF 91 may cancel pre-orders, which may curtail FF’s growth prospects. Additionally, FF’s competitors may move more quickly to market than FF, which could impact FF’s ability to grow its market share.
 
FF has historically incurred substantial indebtedness and may incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, and it may not be able to refinance borrowings on terms that are acceptable to FF, or at all.
 
Since inception, FF has incurred cumulative losses from operations, negative cash flows from operating activities and has an accumulated deficit of $3,476.6 million and $2,907.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and
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2021, respectively. In addition, FF had working deficit (being the extent to which total consolidated current liabilities exceeds total consolidated current assets less restricted cash) of $202.6 million as of December 31, 2022 and working capital (being total consolidated current assets less restricted cash and total consolidated current liabilities) of $288.1 million as of December 31, 2021. Although FF settled the majority of its debt in either equity or cash upon consummation of the Business Combination and paid off certain other indebtedness with the proceeds of the Business Combination, FF may incur additional indebtedness from time to time to support its operations. If FF incurs additional debt, the risks it faces as a result of indebtedness and leverage could intensify. The incurrence of any additional debt could:
 
limit FF’s ability to satisfy obligations under certain debt instruments, to the extent there are any;
cause FF to seek bankruptcy protection or enter into other insolvency proceedings in the event FF is not able to renew or refinance any existing indebtedness as it becomes due;
increase FF’s vulnerability to adverse general economic and industry conditions;
require FF to dedicate a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to servicing and repaying indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of cash flow to fund its working capital, capital expenditures, and other general corporate purposes;
increase its exposure to interest rate and exchange rate fluctuations;
limit its ability to borrow additional funds and impose additional financial and other restrictions on FF, including limitations on declaring dividends; and
increase the cost of additional financing.
Commercial banks, financial institutions and individual lenders may have concerns in providing additional financing for FF’s operations. The governments of the United States, China and Europe may also pass measures or take other actions that may tighten credit available in relevant markets. Any future monetary tightening measures as well as other monetary, fiscal and industrial policy changes and/or political actions by those governments could materially and adversely affect FF’s cost and availability of financing, liquidity, access to capital, and ability to operate our business.
 
FF’s vehicles are in development and the delivery of FF’s first vehicle has experienced, and may continue to experience, significant delays.
 
FF has not yet commenced production of any model and has not recognized any revenue as of the date hereof. FF’s future business depends in large part on its ability to execute its plans to develop, manufacture, market, and deliver electric vehicles, including FF 91, FF 81, FF 71 series, and SLMD electric vehicle models that appeal to customers. Based on certain management assumptions, including the timely receipt of $38.4 million to $58.4 million of additional funding, which commitments have been secured as part of the Sixth Amendment, and approval by stockholders of the proposal to increase FFIE’s authorized shares of Class A Common Stock from 815,000,000 to 1,690,000,000, increasing the total authorized shares from 900,000,000 to 1,775,000,000, which approval was obtained during the special meeting of stockholders held on February 28, 2023, timely completion of key equipment installation and commissioning work at the ieFactory California in Hanford, California, suppliers meeting our supply chain requirements, the implementation and effectiveness of certain expense reduction and payment delay measures, and timely and successful testing and certification, FF expects start of production of the FF 91 Futurist at the end of March 2023, coming off the line in early April 2023, and deliveries to users anticipated to begin before the end of April 2023.
 
However, start of production or deliveries of the FF 91 Futurist may experience further delays due to reasons such as insufficient capital, supply shortages, design defects, talent gaps, and/or force majeure. For example, FF relies on third-party suppliers for the provision and development of many key components used in FF 91 Futurist and other models. To the extent FF’s suppliers experience any delays in providing or developing necessary components, or if they experience quality issues, FF could experience delays in delivering on its timelines. In addition, if FF has to adjust and/or reduce or suspend certain payments to suppliers, such adjustments and/or reductions could further delay the production and deliveries of the FF 91 Futurist.
 
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To the extent FF were to further meaningfully delay the production and delivery of the FF 91 series, potential consumers may lose confidence in FF, and customers who have placed pre-orders for FF 91 Futurist may cancel pre-orders, which may curtail FF’s growth prospects. Additionally, FF’s competitors may move more quickly to market than FF, which could impact FF’s ability to grow its market share.
 
With FF’s vehicle still under development, FF does not have any current customers or any binding pending orders and there is no assurance that non-binding pre-orders and other non-binding indications of interest will be converted into binding orders or sales.
 
To date, FF has not sold any vehicles. Though FF has engaged in marketing activities in anticipation of starting customer deliveries of the FF 91 series, FF has received 356 non-binding, fully refundable pre-orders as of February 27, 2023 and other non-binding indications of interest and FF does not have binding purchase orders or commitments from customers to purchase any of FF’s vehicles in development. As such, there can be no assurance that the pre-orders and other indications of interest would be converted into binding orders or sales.
 
Until the time that FF’s products are commercially available for purchase, and until FF is able to scale up its marketing function to support sales, there will be uncertainty as to customer demand for FF vehicles. The potentially long wait from the time a non-binding pre-order is made or other indication of interest is provided until the time FF vehicles are delivered, and any delays beyond expected wait times, could also impact customer decisions on whether to ultimately make a purchase. Even if FF is able to obtain binding orders, customers may limit their volume of purchases initially as they assess FF’s vehicles and whether to make a broader transition to electric vehicles. Commercializing the FF 91 Futurist and other vehicles in FF’s development pipeline will be a long process and depends on FF’s ability to fund and scale up its productions, including through securing additional funding to fund its operations, the consummation of various third-party agreements and expanding FF’s marketing functions, as well as the safety, reliability, efficiency and quality of FF’s vehicles, and the support and service that will be available. It will also depend on factors outside of FF’s control, such as competition, general market conditions and broader trends in vehicle electrification and fleet management, that could impact customer buying decisions. As a result, there is significant uncertainty regarding demand for FF’s products and the pace and levels of growth that FF may be able to achieve.
 
FF’s recurring losses from operations raise substantial doubt about FF’s ability to continue as a going concern. There is no assurance that FF will be successful in executing upon its operating plan and be able to maintain an adequate level of liquidity, which would result in FF not being able to continue as a going concern.
 
Since inception, FF has incurred cumulative losses from operations, negative cash flows from operating activities and has an accumulated deficit of $3,476.6 million and $2,907.6 million as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. FF expects to continue to generate significant operating losses for the foreseeable future. Based on FF’s recurring losses from operations since inception and continued cash outflows from operating activities, in FF’s audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, FF concluded that this circumstance raised substantial doubt about FF’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year from the original issuance date of such financial statements. Similarly, in its report on the consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, FF’s current and former independent registered public accounting firm included an explanatory paragraph stating that FF’s recurring losses from operations and continued cash outflows from operating activities raised substantial doubt about FF’s ability to continue as a going concern. FF’s consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 do not include any adjustments that may result from the outcome of this uncertainty. However, after the closing of the Business Combination and the PIPE Financing on July 21, 2021, FF received gross proceeds aggregating $991.0 million which it used to pay $84.3 million in transaction costs and $139.6 million (in addition to equity) to settle certain liabilities.
 
As of December 31, 2022, the Company’s principal source of liquidity was cash totaling $17.0 million, which was held for working capital and general corporate purposes. As of February 27, 2023, FF’s cash position was $37.6 million, including restricted cash of $2.1 million.
 
FF operates in a capital-intensive industry which requires significant cash to fund its operations. FF expects its capital expenditures to continue to be significant for the foreseeable future as it continues to develop and grow its business. In response to the delay in obtaining funding commitments and negative macroeconomic trends in the industry in which FF operates, such as supply chain pressures and cost inflation, FF has identified and begun implementation of certain cost reduction and cash conservation measures, including headcount and temporary salary reductions, supplier payment deferrals, and other cost-cutting measures. FF does not believe that the incremental impact of these cost
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reduction and cash conservation measures will have a material adverse impact on the timing of delivery of the FF 91. The Company expects to start production of a saleable FF 91 Futurist at the end of March 2023, coming off the line in early April, with deliveries to users to begin before the end of April, subject to the timely receipt of $38.4 million to $58.4 million of additional funding, which commitments have been secured as part of the Sixth Amendment, and approval by stockholders of the proposal to increase FFIE’s authorized shares of Class A Common Stock from 815,000,000 to 1,690,000,000, increasing the total authorized shares from 900,000,000 to 1,775,000,000, which approval was obtained during the special meeting of stockholders held on February 28, 2023. There can be no assurance that FF will be successful in implementing these measures.
 
In addition to the risk that the Company’s assumptions and analyses may prove incorrect, the projections may underestimate the professional fees and other costs to be incurred related to the pursuit of various financing options currently being considered and ongoing legal risks. FF is seeking to raise additional capital from fundraising efforts currently underway (in addition to $267.0 million that has been committed to date) to supplement its cash on hand to fund the production of FF 91, which may not be successful. FF is actively engaged in confidential discussions and negotiations with entities affiliated with FF Top and other potential investors with respect to purchasing incremental convertible senior secured notes and/or convertible junior secured notes on the same terms as FF Simplicity under the SPA described above. There can be no assurance that FF will be able to successfully obtain additional incremental convertible senior secured note purchasers under the SPA or other debt or equity financing in a timely manner or on acceptable terms, if at all. In particular, the Company is currently conducting due diligence on potential financing sources. This process has been time consuming and may result in the Company not being able to consummate any financing from these or other financing sources on a timely basis or at all. If we are unable to raise sufficient additional funds in the near term, we may be required to further delay our production and delivery plans for the FF 91, reduce headcount, liquidate our assets, file for bankruptcy, reorganize, merge with another entity, and/or cease operations.
 
FF’s cash needs for the FF 91 Futurist will depend on the extent to which FF’s actual costs vary from FF’s estimates and FF’s ability to control these costs and raise additional funds. Any challenges in supplier engagements, delays in ramping capacity or labor at the Hanford facility or for sales and service engagements, rising prices of materials, or ongoing global supply chain disruptions may further increase the need for additional capital to produce and deliver the FF 91 series. Apart from the FF 91 series, substantial additional capital will be required to fund operations, research, development, and design efforts for future vehicles.
 
The timely achievement of FF’s operating plan as well as its ability to maintain an adequate level of liquidity are subject to various risks associated with FF’s ability to continue to successfully obtain additional sources of funding, and control and effectively manage its costs, as well as factors outside of the Company’s control, including those related to global supply chain disruptions, and the rising prices of materials and ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. FF’s forecasts and projections of working capital reflect significant judgment and estimates for which there are inherent risks and uncertainties.

There can be no assurance that FF will be successful in achieving its strategic plans, that FF’s capital raises will be sufficient to support its ongoing operations, or that any additional financing will be available in a timely manner or on acceptable terms, if at all. If events or circumstances occur such that FF does not meet its strategic plans, FF will be required to reduce discretionary spending, alter or scale back vehicle development programs, be unable to develop new or enhanced production methods, or be unable to fund capital expenditures. Any such events would have a material adverse effect on FF’s financial position, results of operations, cash flows, and ability to achieve its intended business objectives. Based on its recurring losses from operations since inception and continued cash outflows from operating activities, FF has concluded that there is substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern for a period of one year from the date that FF’s Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2022 were issued.
 
If FF is unable to continue as a going concern, it may have to seek protection under applicable bankruptcy laws and/or liquidate or reorganize its assets and may receive less than the value at which those assets are carried on its consolidated financial statements. If this were to happen, it is likely investors would lose part or all of their investment. Future reports from FF’s independent registered public accounting firm may also contain statements expressing substantial doubt about FF’s ability to continue as a going concern. If such doubt about FF continues, investors or other financing sources may be unwilling to provide additional funding to FF on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and FF’s business may be harmed.
 
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FF is taking remedial measures in response to the Special Committee findings. There can be no assurance that such remedial measures will be successful. In addition, there can be no assurance that such remedial measures will be fully implemented in light of the recent corporate governance agreements with FF Top and FF Global and the recent assessment by the Board of FF’s management structure, including management roles, responsibilities and reporting lines.
 
In November 2021, the Board established a special committee of independent directors (the “Special Committee”) to investigate allegations of inaccurate Company disclosures. The Special Committee engaged independent legal counsel and a forensic accounting firm to assist in its review. The Special Committee made several findings, including that certain statements made by or on behalf of FF in connection with the PIPE Financing were inaccurate; that deficiencies existing in the Company’s internal control environment; and that certain of the Company’s policies and procedures required enhancement. Based on the results of the Special Committee investigation and subsequent investigative work based on the Special Committee’s findings performed under the direction of the Executive Chairperson and reporting to the Audit Committee, the Board directed management to implement a number of remedial measures. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Recent Developments – Special Committee Investigation” for more information regarding the findings and remedial actions relating to the Special Committee investigation.
 
Although FF is in the process of implementing the remedial measures directed by the Board and is committed to addressing the issues identified in connection with the Special Committee review and subsequent investigative work, no assurance can be provided that such remedial measures will be successful in resolving the problems identified by the Special Committee, will insulate the Company from the consequences of past disclosure inaccuracies, or will be successful in preventing inaccurate disclosures in the future. The Company also cannot predict whether, or to what extent, such remedial actions will impact its operations or financial results.
 
There can be no guarantee that the Special Committee investigation revealed all instances of inaccurate disclosure or other deficiencies, or that other existing or past inaccuracies or deficiencies will not be revealed in the future. Additional inaccuracies or deficiencies could subject the Company to further litigation and regulatory investigations and could contribute to a failure of the Company to meet its SEC reporting obligations in a timely manner, any of which could adversely impact investor confidence in the Company, contribute to a decline in trading prices for the Company’s securities and interfere with the Company’s ability to access financing.
 
On September 23, 2022, FF entered into the Heads of Agreement with FF Global and FF Top, pursuant to which the Company agreed to and implemented significant changes to the Board and Company governance, as more fully described in the section captioned “Management – Governance Agreement with FF Top and FF Global.” Certain of such changes may undercut some of the remedial measures of the Special Committee and/or preclude FF from fully implementing other remedial measures. For instance, Ms. Swenson, who was appointed to the position of Executive Chairperson that the Board created based on the Special Committee investigation, tendered her resignation from her role as both Executive Chairperson and member of the Board on October 3, 2022, effective immediately, and Mr. Adam (Xin) He was appointed to serve as Interim (non-Executive) Chairman of the Board effective as of the same date. The Company expects that the Board seated after the Annual Meeting will select a permanent Chairperson of the Board. Following the resignation of Ms. Swenson, all FF management (including Mr. Yueting Jia) reported directly or indirectly to the Global CEO of the Company (previously Dr. Breitfeld and currently Mr. Xuefeng Chen).

On February 26, 2023, after an assessment by the Board of the Company’s management structure, the Board approved Mr. Yueting Jia (alongside Mr. Xuefeng Chen) reporting directly to the Board, as well as FF’s product, mobility ecosystem, I.A.I., and advanced R&D technology departments reporting directly to Mr. Jia. The Board also approved FF’s user ecosystem, capital markets, human resources and administration, corporate strategy and China departments reporting to both Mr. Jia and Mr. Xuefeng Chen, subject to processes and controls to be determined by the Board after consultation with the Company’s management. The Company’s remaining departments continue to report to Mr. Xuefeng Chen. Based on the changes to his responsibilities within the Company, the Board determined that Mr. Jia is an “officer” of the Company within the meaning of Section 16 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and an “executive officer” of the Company under Rule 3b-7 under the Exchange Act. In addition, Mr. Jia was, effective as of October 4, 2022, also appointed as Founder Advisor, in which capacity he acts as an advisor to the Board (with no change to his current compensation).
 
On January 13, 2023, FF entered into the Amended Shareholder Agreement with FF Global (only with respect to the amendment of the Heads of Agreement) and FF Top, pursuant to which various terms of the Heads of Agreement
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were amended. The Selection Committee is comprised of Mr. Xin He, Mr. Chad Chen and Mr. Chui Tin Mok. Given the governance changes pursuant to the Heads of Agreement such as those described above and further changes to the composition of the Board post Annual Meeting, there can be no assurance that the remedial actions approved by the Board in connection with the Special Committee investigation will be fully implemented or successful. The Company’s Board and management intend to continue to evaluate the Special Committee remedial actions and take actions in the best interest of the Company and its stakeholders.
  
For the audits of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, FF’s current and former independent registered public accounting firm included an explanatory paragraph relating to FF’s ability to continue as a going concern in its report on FF’s audited financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
FF’s audit reports in 2022 and 2021 from its current and former independent registered public accounting firms include an explanatory paragraph stating that FF’s recurring losses from operations and continued cash outflows from operating activities raise substantial doubt about FF’s ability to continue as a going concern. FF’s consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that may result from the outcome of this uncertainty. As of the date FF’s audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2022 were issued, FF management expected that it would be required to obtain additional funding to continue as a going concern within the next 12 months, resulting in there being substantial doubt about FF’s ability to continue as a going concern. If FF is unable to continue as a going concern, it may have to seek protection under applicable bankruptcy laws and/or liquidate or reorganize its assets and may receive less than the value at which those assets are carried on its consolidated financial statements. If such an event were to happen, it is likely investors would lose part or all of their investment. Future reports from FF’s current independent registered public accounting firm may also contain statements expressing substantial doubt about FF’s ability to continue as a going concern. If such doubt about FF continues, investors or other financing sources may be unwilling to provide additional funding to FF on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and FF’s business may be harmed.
 
FF is involved in an SEC investigation, and may be further subject to investigations and legal proceedings related to the matters underlying the Special Committee investigation, which may result in adverse findings, damages, the imposition of fines or other penalties, increased costs and expenses and the diversion of management’s time and resources.
 
On December 23, 2021, a putative class action lawsuit alleging violations of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 was filed in the United States District Court, Central District of California, against FFIE, among others, and its current Global CEO, its former CFO, its current Chief Product and User Ecosystem Officer, as well as the CFO of Legacy FF and former CFO of the Company, and the Co-CEOs of PSAC. Also, on March 8, March 21, April 11, and April 25 2022, putative stockholder derivative lawsuits were filed in the United States District Court, Central District of California and United States District Court, District of Delaware against numerous current and former officers and directors of FFIE alleging violations of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and various common law claims. Also, on June 14, 2022, a verified stockholder class action complaint was filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware against, among others, FFIE, its current Global CEO, its former CFO and its current Chief Product and User Ecosystem Officer alleging breaches of fiduciary duties. Lastly, on September 21, 2022, a verified stockholder class action complaint was filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware against, among others, FFIE, the Co-CEOs and independent directors of PSAC, and certain third-party advisors to PSAC, alleging breaches of fiduciary duties, and aiding and abetting the alleged breaches, in connection with disclosures and stockholder voting leading up to the Business Combination. See “Business – Legal Proceedings” for further information regarding these lawsuits.
 
In connection with the Special Committee investigation, FF, certain members of the management team and FF employees received a notice of preservation and subpoena from the staff of the SEC stating that the SEC had commenced a formal investigation relating to the matters that were the subject of the Special Committee investigation beginning in October 2021. FF, which had previously voluntarily contacted the SEC in connection with the Special Committee investigation, is cooperating fully with the SEC’s investigation. The outcome of such an investigation is difficult to predict, and the SEC may expand the scope of its investigation beyond that of the Special Committee. We have incurred, and may continue to incur, significant expenses related to legal and other professional services in connection with the SEC investigation. At this stage, we are unable to assess whether any material loss or adverse effect is reasonably possible as a result of the SEC’s investigation or estimate the range of any potential loss. In addition, the SEC may subject our directors, officers and employees to fines, penalties and other punitive actions. In June 2022, FF received a preliminary request for information from the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) in connection with the matters that were the subject of the Special Committee investigation. FF has responded to that request and intends to fully cooperate with any future requests from the DOJ.
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On October 20, 2022, FF received a subpoena from the SEC requiring FF to produce certain documents relating to FF’s transactions with Senyun International Ltd. FF has fully complied with and intends to continue to fully comply with the subpoena.
 
FF has incurred legal and accounting expenses and may continue to incur significant legal and accounting expenditures in connection with the Special Committee investigation, SEC investigation, the stockholders lawsuits and DOJ inquiry. Any legal proceedings resulting from these investigations and litigation, including further shareholder derivative litigation or governmental inquiries or investigations may further divert management’s time and attention and may result in the incurrence of significant expense, including legal fees. Such legal proceedings could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows including as a result of such expenses or arising from any consequences of such legal proceedings including damages, monetary fines, sanctions, penalties, adverse publicity and damage to reputation.
 
FF will depend on revenue generated from a single model of vehicles in the foreseeable future.
 
FF’s success will initially depend substantially on the future sales and success of FF 91 series. FF expects FF 91 series to be its only manufactured vehicle in the market in the near future; it remains uncertain when FF will raise sufficient funding to complete design, development, tooling, production, and deliveries of its second model, FF 81 series. Historically, automobile customers have come to expect a variety of vehicle models offered in a manufacturer’s fleet and new and improved vehicle models to be introduced frequently. It remains uncertain if FF’s business will generate sufficient funds or FF will be able to obtain sufficient funds through other means to introduce new vehicle models on a regular basis. Given that FF’s business will depend on a single or limited number of models in the foreseeable future, to the extent a particular model is not well-received by the market, FF’s business prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected.
 
The market for FF’s vehicles, including its SLMD vehicles, is nascent and not established.
 
FF’s B2C (“business-to-consumer”) passenger electric vehicles are planned to be with leading design and provide superior driving experience and personalized user experience in their respective customer segments. FF believes its electric vehicles represent the “smart mobility” of the next generation. FF’s growth is highly dependent upon the consumers’ reception and adoption of FF’s vision as to what the future of transportation and mobility should embody. Although there are many automakers introducing multiple options of mass-market electric vehicles, the market for electric vehicles with ultra-new technology and cutting-edge styling is still nascent and untested. In addition to vehicles targeting end-customers, FF plans to build the SLMD vehicles targeting B2B (“business-to-business”) last-mile delivery logistics companies. FF believes its modular approach to vehicle design provides adaptive and sustainable solutions in the commercial vehicle segment, thus meeting the needs of commercial vehicle owners. However, there is uncertainty as to the future demands for FF’s vehicles in both B2B and B2C market segments, and there is no assurance that the retail and commercial vehicle market FF envisions for its vehicles will be established. To a large extent, it depends on general economic, political, and social conditions, all of which are beyond FF’s control.
 
FF is dependent on its suppliers, the majority of which are single-source suppliers. The inability of these suppliers to deliver necessary components for FF’s products according to the schedule and at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to FF, or FF’s inability to efficiently manage these suppliers, could have a material adverse effect on its business prospects, financial condition and operating results.
 
The FF 91 model incorporates approximately 1,800 purchased components sourced from approximately 150 suppliers, many of whom are currently FF’s single-source suppliers for the components they supply, and FF expects this to be similar for any other vehicles FF may produce. The supply chain exposes FF to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions in the supply chain, which may continue due to the complex and compounding problems, including shortages of personnel, and our single source suppliers may also experience damage or interruption in their operations due to unforeseen events or become insolvent or bankrupt, all of which could delay or stop their shipment of components to us. Additionally, in view of FF’s current cash position, it has delayed payment to suppliers, which in some cases has resulted in, and may continue to result in, certain of such suppliers ceasing to do business with FF. FF is in active negotiations with these suppliers to minimize these risks and has been successful in retaining the majority of key suppliers. To the extent FF’s suppliers experience any delays or stoppages in providing FF with or developing necessary components or experience quality issues, or if they otherwise decide to cease doing business with FF, FF could experience significant delays in delivering on its planned timelines.
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Currently, FF has not approved secondary sources for the key single sourced components used in FF 91. Generally, FF does not maintain long-term agreements with these single-source suppliers.
 
Historically, certain suppliers ceased supplying their components and initiated legal claims against FF when FF failed to make overdue payments. While most of these legal claims have been settled through the vendor trust FF established in April 2019 (“Vendor Trust”), there are still a number of remaining disputes with suppliers in the U.S. and in China. More recently, some suppliers have requested accelerated payments and other terms and conditions as a result of our past payment history and concerns about the Company’s financial condition, leading to less favorable payment terms than the Company had anticipated, and delaying or putting at risk certain deliveries. Any disruption in the supply of components, whether or not from a single-source supplier, could temporarily disrupt FF’s production until a satisfactory alternative supplier is found, which can be time consuming and costly. There can be no assurance that FF would be able to successfully retain alternative suppliers or supplies in a timely manner or on acceptable terms, if at all. If FF is unable to efficiently manage its suppliers, including its relationship with them, FF’s business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected. Additionally, changes in business and/or political conditions, force majeure events, changes in regulatory framework and other factors beyond FF’s control could also affect the suppliers’ ability to deliver components in a timely manner. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect FF’s business, prospects, financial condition and operating results and could result in a material change in FF’s operations and a material reduction in the market value of FF’s securities.

If any of FF’s suppliers become economically distressed or go bankrupt, FF may be required to provide substantial financial support or take other measures to ensure supplies of components or materials, which could increase FF’s costs, affect its liquidity or cause production disruptions.
 
FF expects to purchase various types of equipment, raw materials and manufactured component parts from its suppliers. If any of these suppliers experience substantial financial difficulties, cease operations, or otherwise face business disruptions, FF may be required to provide substantial financial support to ensure supply continuity, or FF would have to take other measures to ensure components and materials remain available. Any disruption could affect FF’s ability to deliver vehicles and could increase FF’s costs and negatively affect its liquidity and financial performance.
 
FF faces a number of challenges in the sale and marketing of its vehicles.
 
FF plans to enhance its brand recognition, improve its brand reputation and grow its client base by substantial investments in marketing and business development activities. However, FF cannot guarantee that its marketing spending or the marketing strategies it plans to adopt will have their anticipated effect or generate returns. FF faces a number of challenges in the sale and marketing of its vehicles, including, without limitation:
 
Demand in the automobile industry is highly volatile;
Final delivered range, performance and quality of FF’s vehicles may vary from estimates;
It is expensive to establish a strong brand. FF may not succeed in continuing to establish, maintain and strengthen the FF brand in a cost-efficient manner, or at all;
Many consumers are not aware of the benefits of FF’s products, which may depend on factors beyond FF’s control such as transition of consumer behaviors;
FF competes with other automotive manufacturers for consumer spending;
 
Many other automotive manufacturers have already manufactured and sold electric vehicles providing them with a marketing advantage;
FF’s failure to keep up with rapid technological changes could make its vehicles less attractive than those of competitors or make potential customers unwilling to pay a premium for FF’s vehicles;
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FF may not be able to attract a sufficient number of retail partners to support its expected sales volumes; and
FF’s efforts to develop and market its SLMD vehicles might not be successful given the fact that its target customers are commercial logistic companies which have different requirements compared to retail consumers.
 If FF is unable to efficiently enhance its brand and market its products, its business prospects, financial condition and operating results may be adversely and materially affected.
 
FF needs to develop complex software and technology systems in coordination with vendors and suppliers to reach production for its electric vehicles, and there can be no assurance such systems will be successfully developed.
 
FF’s vehicles will use a substantial amount of third-party and in-house software code and complex hardware to operate. The development of such advanced technologies is inherently complex, and FF will need to coordinate with vendors and suppliers to achieve development for its electric vehicles. Defects and errors may be revealed over time, and FF’s control over the performance of third-party services and systems may be limited. FF is relying on third-party suppliers to develop and manage emerging technologies for use in its vehicles, including lithium-ion battery technology. As technology in electric vehicles is constantly evolving, FF may also need to rely on suppliers to develop technologies that are not yet commercially viable. There can be no assurance that FF’s suppliers will be able to meet the technological requirements, production timing, and volume requirements needed to support FF’s business plan. Nor can FF assure that such emerging technologies and systems will be successfully developed on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. FF’s potential inability to develop the necessary software and technology systems may harm its competitive position and its business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

FF identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. If FF is unable to remediate these material weaknesses, or if it identifies additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fails to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, it may not be able to accurately or timely report its financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect FF’s business and share price.
 
A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of its annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weaknesses are as follows:
 
FF did not design and maintain an effective control environment commensurate with its financial reporting requirements. Specifically, FF lacked a sufficient number of professionals with an appropriate level of accounting knowledge, training and experience to appropriately analyze, record and disclose accounting matters timely and accurately. Additionally, management did not establish formal reporting lines in pursuit of its objectives. Further, the lack of a sufficient number of professionals resulted in an inability to consistently establish appropriate authorities and responsibilities in pursuit of its financial reporting objectives, as demonstrated by, among other things, insufficient segregation of duties in its finance and accounting functions.
FF did not design and maintain effective controls in response to the risks of material misstatement. Specifically, changes to existing controls or the implementation of new controls were not sufficient to respond to changes to the risks of material misstatement to financial reporting, due to growth in the business.
FF did not design and maintain effective controls for communicating and sharing information between the legal, capital markets, and accounting and finance departments. Specifically, the accounting and finance departments were not consistently provided the complete and adequate support, documentation, and information including the nature of relationships with certain counterparties to record transactions within the financial statements timely, completely and accurately.
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 These material weaknesses contributed to the following additional material weaknesses:
 
FF did not design and maintain effective controls to address the identification of and accounting for certain non-routine, unusual or complex transactions, including the proper application of U.S. GAAP to such transactions. Specifically, FF did not design and maintain controls to timely identify and account for embedded derivatives related to convertible notes, impute interest on related party notes payable with interest rates below market rates, account for failed sale leaseback transactions, and account for warrant instruments.
FF did not design and maintain formal accounting policies, procedures and controls to achieve complete, accurate and timely financial accounting, reporting and disclosures, including controls over the period-end financial reporting process addressing areas including financial statement and footnote presentation and disclosures, account reconciliations and journal entries, including segregation of duties, assessing the reliability of reports and spreadsheets used in controls, and the timely identification and accounting for cut-off of expenditures
 These material weaknesses resulted in adjustments primarily related to expense cut-off and the associated accounts including operating expenses, accounts payable and accruals, property and equipment, convertible notes payable and interest expense and related financial disclosures, which were recorded as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019. These material weaknesses also resulted in adjustments primarily related to the extinguishment of a noncontrolling interest, accounts payable, vendor payables in trust and adjustments to the statement of cash flows which were recorded as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 as well as disclosure errors related to the anti-dilutive shares excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share, deferred tax assets and related valuation allowance, accrued interest for certain notes payable, and the fair value of the Vendor Trust as of December 31, 2019. Refer to Note 3 to FF’s Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2020, included in its Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File Number 333-255027), initially filed with the SEC on April 5, 2021 (as amended, the “Registration Statement”). Additionally, the material weakness related to accounting for warrant instruments resulted in the restatement of the previously issued financial statements as disclosed in Note 2 to PSAC’s Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2020 within PSAC’s Annual Report on Form 10-K/A, of the entity acquired as part of the July 21, 2021 merger agreement related to warrant liabilities and equity.
 
FF did not design and maintain effective controls over information technology (“IT”) general controls for information systems that are relevant to the preparation of its financial statements, specifically, with respect to (i) program change management controls to ensure that IT program and data changes affecting financial IT applications and underlying accounting records are identified, tested, authorized and implemented appropriately; (ii) user access controls to ensure appropriate segregation of duties and that adequately restrict user and privileged access to financial applications, programs, and data to appropriate company personnel; and (iii) computer operations controls to ensure that critical batch jobs are monitored and data backups are authorized and monitored. These IT deficiencies did not result in a material misstatement to the consolidated financial statements, however, the deficiencies, when aggregated, could result in material misstatements potentially impacting all financial statement accounts and disclosures.
In connection with the Special Committee investigation, and the completion of additional investigative and remedial work based on Special Committee findings, which were performed under the direction of the then newly-appointed Executive Chairperson, reporting to the Audit Committee, additional material weaknesses were identified in FF’s internal control over financial reporting (as disclosed in Note 3 to FF’s consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on May 13, 2022). Specifically, in addition to the material weaknesses described above relating to management not establishing formal reporting lines in pursuit of its objectives as well as maintaining effective controls for communicating and sharing information between the legal, capital markets, and accounting and finance departments, the following material weaknesses were identified:
 
FF did not maintain an effective control environment or demonstrate a commitment to maintain integrity and ethical values. Specifically, certain members of senior management failed to reinforce the need for an attitude of compliance and internal control awareness with certain of FF’s governance, accounting and finance policies and procedures. This resulted in the inaccurate and incomplete disclosures of certain relationships, arrangements, and transactions.
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 This material weakness contributed to the following additional material weakness:
 
FF did not design and maintain effective controls related to the identification and disclosure of certain arrangements and transactions with related parties.
 The material weaknesses identified in connection with the Special Committee investigation resulted in the revision of our previously filed financial statements as of and for the period ended December 31, 2020 (as disclosed in Note 9 to FF’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021) and for the periods ended March 31, 2021 (as disclosed in Note 1 to FFIE’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022) and June 30, 2021 (as disclosed in Note 1 to FFIE’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2022) related to notes payable, related party notes payable, accrued interest, related party accrued interest, interest expense, and related party interest expense.
 
Additionally, each of the material weaknesses described above could result in a material misstatement to substantially all of our accounts or disclosures.
 
Management is actively engaged and committed to taking the steps necessary to remediate the control deficiencies that constituted the material weaknesses. During 2021 and 2022, FF made the following enhancements to our internal control over financial reporting:
 
FF added finance and accounting personnel to the organization to strengthen our finance and accounting teams. The additional personnel are expected to provide oversight, structure, reporting lines, and additional review over our disclosures;
FF implemented certain new accounting policies and procedures, and an IT system relevant to the preparation of our financial statements to improve communication of key areas across the different departments at FF and to provide adequate structure, accountability, and segregation of duties;
FF appointed Ms. Becky Roof as Interim Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and engaged an affiliate of AlixPartners LLP to accelerate implementation of Special Committee recommendations including, but not limited to remediation of the material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting (on October 12, 2022, Ms. Roof resigned from FF upon the successful completion of key milestones in FF’s reporting and fundraising activities, and on October 22, 2022, the Company appointed Ms. Yun Han as Chief Accounting Officer and Interim CFO, effective as of October 25, 2022);
FF implemented enhanced controls around FF’s related party transactions, including regular attestations;
FF removed Mr. Yueting Jia, FF’s founder, as an Executive Officer, although he will continue in his position as Chief Product & User Ecosystem Officer of FFIE, reporting to the Chairperson with his role limited to focusing on (a) Product and Mobility Ecosystem and (b) Internet, Artificial Intelligence, and advanced R&D technology (however, as of February 26, 2023, this remedial measure is no longer being implemented as further discussed below);
Functions previously dual-reporting to Mr. Jia and Mr. Breitfeld would report only to Ms. Swenson (but Mr. Jia may remain involved in long-term strategy) (and following the resignation of Ms. Swenson on October 3, 2022, all FF management (including Mr. Jia) reported directly or indirectly to the Global CEO of FF (previously Dr. Breitfeld and currently Mr. Xuefeng Chen) indefinitely while the Board continues to evaluate the appropriate FF management reporting lines) (however, as of February 26, 2023, this remedial measure is no longer being implemented as further discussed below). However, on February 26, 2023, the Board approved Mr. Jia (along with Mr. Xuefeng Chen) reporting directly to the Board, as well as FF’s product, mobility ecosystem, I.A.I., and advanced R&D technology departments reporting directly to Mr. Jia. The Board also approved FF’s user ecosystem, capital markets, human resources and administration, corporate strategy and China departments reporting to both Mr. Jia and Mr. Xuefeng Chen, subject to processes and controls to be determined by the Board after consultation with the Company’s management. The Company’s remaining departments continue to report to Mr. Xuefeng Chen; and
FF adopted an Insider Investment Reporting Policy to enhance internal reporting of related party transactions.
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Our remediation activities are continuing during 2023, although certain of the remedial efforts described above are no longer applicable given recent developments. For instance, Ms. Swenson resigned from the Board on October 3, 2022.

Moreover, effective on February 26, 2023, certain departments within the Company report to both Mr. Jia and Mr. Xuefeng Chen, including the Company’s user ecosystem, capital markets, human resources and administration, corporate strategy and China departments, subject to processes and controls to be determined by the Board after consultation with the Company’s management. The Company’s product, mobility ecosystem, I.A.I., and advanced R&D technology departments report directly to Mr. Jia, while the remaining departments continue to report to Mr. Xuefeng Chen. Based on the changes to his responsibilities within FF, the Board determined that Mr. Jia is an “officer” of the Company within the meaning of Section 16 of the Exchange Act, and an “executive officer” of the Company under Rule 3b-7 under the Exchange Act. FF has or is planning to put in place processes and controls to mitigate the risks associated with the changes in Mr. Jia’s responsibilities as well as to enhance oversight and corporate governance, including but not limited to:

segregating responsibilities and duties in the Company’s user ecosystem, capital markets, human resources and administration, corporate strategy and China departments;
requiring Board, or a designated committee of the Board, to approve the signing of financing agreements, the hiring, promoting or terminating vice presidents of the Company and above (including additional Section 16 officers), and the approval of Company-wide compensation policies;
hiring of a Compliance Officer with the title of Deputy General Counsel (hired in March 2023), who will report on a dotted line to the Chair of the Audit committee, and a Director of Risks and Internal Controls; and
engaging an external consulting firm to work in the capacity of an internal audit function, who will report on a dotted line to the Chair of the Audit committee.
In addition to the above actions and in view of the governance changes that the Company implemented pursuant to the Heads of Agreement and otherwise, FF expects to engage in additional activities, including, but not limited to:
 
Continuing to hire key finance and accounting personnel as FF scales and until FF has sufficient technical accounting resources, combined with engaging external consultants to provide support and to assist us in our evaluation of more complex applications of U.S. GAAP and to assist us with documenting and assessing our accounting policies and procedures;
Designing and implementing controls in response to the risks of material misstatement to identify and evaluate changes in our business and the impact on our internal controls;
Designing and implementing controls for communicating and sharing information between legal, capital markets, and accounting to facilitate transactions being recorded timely and accurately;
Designing and implementing formal processes, accounting policies, procedures, and controls supporting certain business processes and our financial close process, including creating standard balance sheet reconciliation templates and journal entry controls assessing the reliability of reports and spreadsheets used in controls; and the timely identification and accounting for cut-off of expenditures;
Designing and implementing controls to address the identification of and accounting for certain non-routine, unusual or complex transactions;
Designing and implementing controls related to the identification and disclosure of certain arrangements and transactions with related parties;
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Continuing to implement additional IT systems relevant to the preparation of our financial statements and controls over financial reporting to improve communication of key areas across the different departments at FF and to provide adequate structure, accountability, and segregation of duties; and
Designing and implementing IT general controls, including controls over change management, the review and update of user access controls and controls over critical batch jobs and data backups.
 While FF has made progress, the material weaknesses will not be considered remediated until FF completes the design and implementation of the enhanced controls, the controls operate for a sufficient period of time, and FF has concluded, through testing, that these controls are effective. FF believes that our remediation plan will be sufficient to remediate the identified material weakness and strengthen our internal control over financial reporting.
 
As we continue to evaluate and work to improve our internal control over financial reporting, FF may determine that additional measures or modifications to the remediation plan are necessary.
 
We are working to remediate the material weaknesses as efficiently and effectively as possible and expect full remediation could potentially go beyond December 31, 2023. At this time, we cannot provide an estimate of costs expected to be incurred in connection with implementing this remediation plan; however, these remediation measures will be time consuming, will result in FF incurring significant costs, and will place significant demands on our financial and operational resources.
 
While FF believes these efforts will remediate the material weaknesses, FF may not be able to complete its evaluation, testing or any required remediation in a timely fashion, or at all. FF cannot assure you that the measures it has taken to date and may take in the future, will be sufficient to remediate the control deficiencies that led to its material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting or that they will prevent or avoid potential future material weaknesses. The effectiveness of FF’s internal control over financial reporting is subject to various inherent limitations, including cost limitations, judgments used in decision making, assumptions about the likelihood of future events, the possibility of human error and the risk of fraud. If FF is unable to remediate its material weaknesses, FF’s ability to record, process and report financial information accurately, and to prepare financial statements within the time periods specified by the forms of the SEC, could be adversely affected which, in turn, may adversely affect FF’s reputation and business and the market price of the Class A Common Stock. Any such failures could result in litigation or regulatory actions by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, loss of investor confidence, delisting of FF’s securities and harm to FF’s reputation and financial condition, or diversion of financial and management resources from the operation of FF’s business.
 
Notwithstanding the foregoing, as a result of the governance settlement entered into between FF and FF Global described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other developments, there has been substantial recent turnover in key management personnel, including legal and compliance personnel, as well as substantial changes to the composition of the Board, and further changes may continue to occur substantially concurrently with the completion of the Annual Meeting. See “– The composition of FFIE’s Board has changed, and may further change prior to or immediately following completion of the Annual Meeting.” As a result of this turnover in the composition of the Board, there can be no guarantee that the Board as composed in the future will agree with decisions made by the Board at the time of the Special Committee investigation, that they will not identify other areas that require remediation or that they will continue to pursue the remediation measures described above. Loss and turnover of personnel, particularly accounting, finance and legal personnel, may also negatively impact FFIE’s internal controls over financial reporting and other disclosures and our ability to prepare and make timely and accurate public disclosures.
 
FF’s decision to manufacture its own vehicles in its leased Hanford, California facility does not guarantee FF will not incur significant delays in the production of the vehicles.
 
FF plans to continue to build-out its leased manufacturing facility in Hanford, California in anticipation of the production of FF 91 series. Additionally, this construction may experience unexpected delays or other difficulties which could further increase costs and/or adversely affect FF’s scheduled timeline to manufacture and deliver vehicles. Further, manufacturing and assembling components in-house in the Hanford facility does not guarantee that the production of its vehicles will be on schedule. Various risks and uncertainties inherent in all new manufacturing processes could result in delays in the production of FF’s vehicles, including for example those with respect to:
 
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pace of bringing production equipment and processes online with the capability to manufacture high-quality units at scale;
compliance with complex and evolving environmental, workplace safety and similar regulations;
channels to secure necessary equipment, tools and components from suppliers on acceptable terms and in a timely manner;
the ability to attract, recruit, hire and train skilled employees;
quality controls;
a health emergency such as the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, difficult economic conditions and international political tensions, the conflict in Ukraine; and
other delays and cost overruns.
 
Production and manufacturing of some of FF’s vehicles will be outsourced to a third-party contract manufacturer in South Korea and potentially through a joint venture in China. If such contract manufacturer or joint venture fails to produce and deliver vehicles in a timely manner for any reason, FF’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operation could be materially harmed.
 
FF is outsourcing the manufacturing of some of its vehicles to a third-party contract manufacturer in South Korea and may also set up a joint venture in China for vehicle manufacturing, which FF may heavily rely upon. Collaboration with third parties for the manufacturing of vehicles is subject to risks that may be outside FF’s control. FF has yet to enter into any legally binding definitive agreements regarding such third-party contract manufacturers (other than with a third-party contract manufacturer in South Korea) or joint venture, and the parties could revise or terminate the preliminary memorandum of understanding. The parties may also not reach agreement on legally binding definitive documents regarding such joint venture, could abandon the related preliminary memorandum of understanding and cooperation agreement and pursue other commercial arrangements (such as contract manufacturing or sale) or could terminate the preliminary memorandum of understanding and cooperation agreement at any time before the definitive agreements are signed. Even though the definitive agreement has been signed with the third-party contract manufacturer in South Korea, there remains uncertainty if the manufacturing facility would be build-out as planned or if the parties will cooperate with each other as agreed. For example, FF entered into a joint venture agreement with The9 Limited in March 2019 with the intent for the joint venture to serve the China market with capabilities to manufacture, market, distribute, and sell a new model designed for the JV based on concepts of FF 91. However, the joint venture has been dormant since then because The9 Limited has never provided the required funding, and as a result, FF has not licensed its IP to the joint venture.
 
In addition, FF could experience delays if such third-party contract manufacturing partner or joint venture does not meet agreed upon timelines or experiences capacity constraints. There is risk of potential disputes with business partners, and FF could be affected by adverse publicity related to its business partners, whether or not such publicity is related to their collaboration with FF. FF’s ability to successfully build a premium brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions if the quality of the third-contract manufacturing partners or joint venture’s products not related to FF’s products are questioned. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that FF will successfully ensure its manufacturing partners or joint ventures maintain appropriate quality standards, with any failure to do so adversely affecting customers’ perceptions of FF’s self-manufactured electric vehicles.
 
If FF experiences delays, disputes or other difficulties with third-party manufacturers or joint ventures that FF outsources orders to, there can be no assurance that it would be able to engage other third parties or to establish or expand its own production capacity to meet the needs of its customers in a timely manner or on acceptable terms, or at all. The expense and time required to complete any transition, and to assure that vehicles manufactured at facilities of new manufacturers comply with FF’s quality standards and regulatory requirements may be greater than anticipated. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect FF’s business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
 
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FF has minimal experience servicing and repairing its vehicles. The inability to adequately service vehicles may adversely affect FF’s business.
 
FF has minimal experience servicing and repairing its vehicles. Servicing EVs is different than servicing vehicles with internal combustion engines and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. Although FF is planning to internalize most aspects of vehicle service over time, initially FF plans to partner with third parties to enable nationwide coverage for roadside and off-road assistance and collision repair needs. There can be no assurance that FF will be able to enter into an acceptable arrangement with any such third-party providers. Although such servicing partners may have experience in servicing other vehicles, they will initially have limited experience in servicing FF vehicles. There can be no assurance that such service arrangements will adequately address the service requirements of FF’s customers to their satisfaction, or that FF and its servicing partners will have sufficient resources, experience, or inventory to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of EVs we deliver increases.
 
In addition, a number of states currently impose limitations on the ability of manufacturers to directly service vehicles. The application of these state laws to our operations could hinder or impede our ability to provide services for our vehicles from a location in every state. As a result, if FF is unable to roll out and establish a widespread service network that complies with applicable laws, customer satisfaction could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect FF’s reputation and thus its business.
 
In the future, additional pressure may be placed on FF’s customer support team or partners, and FF may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for technical support. Customer behavior and usage may result in higher than expected maintenance and repair costs, which may negatively affect FF’s business. FF also could be unable to modify the future scope and delivery of its technical support to compete with changes in the technical support provided by its competitors. Increased customer demand for support, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and negatively affect FF’s results of operations. If FF is unable to successfully address the service requirements of its customers or establish a market perception that FF maintains high-quality support, FF may be subject to claims from customers, including loss of revenue or damages, and FF’s business could be materially and adversely affected.
 
Changes in U.S. and international trade policies, including the export and import controls and laws, particularly with regard to China, may adversely impact FF’s business and operating results.
 
FF operates with a United States and China dual-home market strategy, partnering with leading international suppliers from North America, Europe and Asia. While FF believes this is the best strategic business model, it also is more subject to risks associated with international trade conflicts including between the United States and China, particularly with respect to export and import controls and laws. Former President Donald J. Trump advocated for greater restrictions on international trade in general, which significantly increased tariffs on certain goods imported into the United States-particularly from China. Former President Trump also took steps toward restricting trade in certain goods. In response, China and other countries imposed similar retaliatory tariffs and other measures and such international trade conflicts have continued under the Biden administration.
 
On December 23, 2021, the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act, which effectively prohibits imports of any goods made either wholly or in part in Xinjiang, was signed into law. The law went into effect on June 21, 2022. The law prohibits “the importation of goods made with forced labor” unless U.S. Customs and Border Protection determines, based on “clear and convincing evidence”, that the goods in question were not produced “wholly or in part by forced labor”, and submits a report to the U.S. Congress setting out its findings. While we do not currently expect that this law will directly affect our supplies, since we do not believe that our suppliers source materials from Xinjiang for the products they sell to us, other renewable energy companies’ attempts to shift suppliers in response to this law, withhold release orders, or other policy developments could result in shortages, delays, and/or price increases that could disrupt our own supply chain or cause our suppliers to renegotiate existing arrangements with us or fail to perform on such obligations. Broader policy uncertainty could also reduce Chinese panel production, affecting supplies and/or prices for panels, regardless of supplier. While we have developed multiple supply sources in a variety of countries, we could still be adversely affected by increases in our costs, negative publicity related to the industry, or other adverse consequences to our business.
 
Rising political tensions could reduce trade volume, investment, technological exchange and other economic activities between major international economies, resulting in a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets. Additionally, increasing tariffs could impact raw material prices, the cost of
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component parts and transportation. Any of the foregoing could have an adverse effect on FF’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. The Biden administration may also enact policy changes that could have an impact on FF’s business.
 
Continued or increased price competition in the automotive industry generally, and in electric and other alternative fuel vehicles, may harm FF’s business.
 
Increased competition could result in lower vehicle unit sales, increased inventory, price reductions, revenue shortfalls, loss of customers and loss of market share, which could harm FF’s business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. For example, the automotive industry has witnessed increasing price competition over the years. With more competitors entering the field, many manufacturers are facing downward price pressure and have been adjusting their pricing strategies. FF may not have the same financial resources as some of the competitors to allow it to adjust pricing strategies, which may result in a loss of customers and future market share. On the other hand, if FF follows the downward price adjustment trend, its ability to generate revenues and achieve profitability may be adversely affected. Any of the foregoing may harm FF’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
 
FF faces competition from multiple sources, including new and established domestic and international competitors, and expects to face competition from others in the future, including competition from companies with new technology. This fierce competition may adversely affect FF’s revenues, increase its costs to acquire new customers, and hinder its ability to acquire new customers.
 
The automotive market in the United States, China, and the E.U., which are FF’s target markets, is and will remain highly competitive. A significant and growing number of established and new automobile manufacturers, as well as other companies, have entered or are reported to have plans to enter the alternative fuel vehicle market, including hybrid, plug-in hybrid and fully electric vehicles, as well as the market for autonomous driving technology and applications. In some cases, such competitors have announced an intention to produce electric vehicles exclusively at some point in the future. FF directly competes with other pure-play electric vehicle companies targeting the high-end market segment, and to a lesser extent with new energy vehicles (“NEVs”) and internal combustion engine (“ICE”) vehicles in the mid- to high-end market segment offered by traditional OEMs. In light of the increased demand and regulatory push for and technology changes in connection with the alternative fuel vehicles, FF expects competition in the industry to intensify with more new players in the future, including companies with new technology.
 
Many of FF’s current and potential competitors, have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing, distribution and other resources than FF, and are able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale and support of their products than FF. In order to acquire customers and better compete, FF may have to incur significant expenses for marketing and business development activities and discounts. Any inability to successfully compete with new or existing competitors may prevent FF from attracting new customers and result in loss of market share. By the time FF starts delivering FF 91, a substantial portion of the market share may have already been taken by FF’s competitors. There can be no assurance that FF will be able to compete successfully in global and local markets, failure of which may materially and adversely affect FF’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
 
FF’s go-to-market and sales strategy, including its own and partner stores and showrooms as well as FF’s online web platform, will require substantial investment and commitment of resources and is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.
 
FF intends to establish online and offline marketing, sales, and after-sales channels, which consist of its own stores, partner stores and showrooms and an online web platform. FF plans to distribute its vehicles in certain key markets through its direct stores, while establishing a distribution model of direct sales and partner-owned stores and showrooms in other markets. Users will be able to place orders and purchase FF’s vehicles exclusively through an online platform while assigning the transaction to a specific store or showroom. Establishing FF’s direct stores rather than exclusively distributing its vehicles though partner stores will require significant capital expenditures and may result in reduced or slower expansion of FF’s distribution and sales systems in the key markets compared to a traditional dealership system.
 
FF expects the partner stores and showrooms (such partners are “FF Partners” and such stores or showrooms are “FF Partner Stores and showrooms”) will be compensated from the sales and services that are conducted online and from the capital upside of the FF equity that the retail partners may receive as an incentive for making their initial investment
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in stores of showrooms. However, FF cannot assure that its partner business model will be as attractive as that of traditional OEMs and thus that FF will be able to scale up its network to an adequate size. In addition, FF is not in a position to guarantee that it will be able to generate sufficient traffic to FF’s online web platform or to attract enough users to place orders. Moreover, FF will be competing with automakers with well-established distribution channels, which places significant risk to the successful implementation of FF’s business plan.
 
If FF is unable to roll out and establish a broad network covering both online and offline channels that fully meet customers’ expectations, consumer experience could be adversely affected, which could in turn materially and adversely affect FF’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Implementing the FF business model is subject to numerous significant challenges, including obtaining permits and approvals from government authorities, and FF may not be successful in addressing these challenges. In addition, dealer trade associations may mount challenges to FF’s distribution strategy by challenging the legality of FF’s operations in court and employing administrative and legislative processes to attempt to prohibit or limit FF’s ability to operate. All these would have a material and adverse effect on FF’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Difficult economic conditions, financial or economic crises, or the perceived threat of such a crisis, including a significant decrease in consumer confidence, may affect consumer purchases of premium items, such as FF’s electric vehicles.
 
Sales of premium consumer products, such as FF 91 Futurist and other electric vehicles, depend in part on discretionary consumer spending and therefore may decline based on adverse changes in general economic conditions. The global economy and financial markets experience significant disruptions from time to time, constantly facing new challenges, including the recent uncertainties over the impact of Brexit, ongoing trade disputes and tariffs, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related economic policies taken by various governments around the world. It is unclear whether these challenges will be successfully addressed and what effects they may have. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies that have been adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies. Any prolonged slowdown in economic development might lead to tighter credit markets, increased market volatility, sudden drops in business and consumer confidence and dramatic changes in business and consumer behaviors.
 
Specifically, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, difficult macroeconomic conditions, such as decreases in per capita income and disposable income, increased and prolonged unemployment, a decline in consumer confidence, and/or reduced spending by businesses could have a material adverse effect on future investor interest or customer demand for FF’s vehicles. In response to the perceived uncertainty in economic conditions, consumers might delay, reduce or cancel purchases of such electric vehicles. Potential customers may seek to reduce spending by foregoing luxurious new energy vehicles. Decreased demand for FF vehicles, particularly in the United States and China, could negatively affect the business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations of FF.
 
FF faces risks related to natural disasters, climate change, health epidemics and pandemics, terrorist attacks, civil unrest and other circumstances outside its control, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, which could significantly disrupt FF’s operations.
 
The occurrence of unforeseen or catastrophic events, including the emergence of an epidemic, pandemic or other widespread health emergency, civil unrest, war (such as the conflict in Ukraine), terrorist attacks, climate change or natural disasters could create economic and financial disruptions. These types of events could lead to operational difficulties, impair FF’s ability to manage its business and expose FF’s business activities to significant losses. FF’s management and operational teams are based in the United States and China. FF has a manufacturing facility in Hanford, California, and has executed an agreement with a contract manufacturer in South Korea. FF is also exploring other potential contract manufacturing options in addition to the contract manufacturer in South Korea. Additionally, FF may establish manufacturing through a joint venture in China and/or other regions for certain future vehicle models. An unforeseen or catastrophic event in any of these regions could adversely impact FF’s operations.
 
Most recently, there has been a pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus known as COVID-19. The impact of COVID-19, including changes in consumer and business behavior, pandemic fears, market downturns, and restrictions on business and individual activities has created significant volatility in the global economy and has led to reduced economic activity. The spread of COVID-19 has also created a disruption in the manufacturing, delivery and overall supply chain of vehicle manufacturers and suppliers, and has led to a global decrease in vehicle sales in markets around the world.
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The pandemic has resulted in government authorities implementing numerous measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, stay-at-home or shelter-in-place orders, and business shutdowns. For example, FF’s employees based in California have been periodically subject to stay-at-home orders from state and local governments. These measures may adversely impact FF’s employees and operations and the operations of FF’s suppliers and business partners, and could negatively impact the construction schedule of FF’s manufacturing facility and the production schedule of FF 91 Futurist. In addition, various aspects of FF’s business and manufacturing facility cannot be conducted remotely. These measures by government authorities may remain in place for a significant period of time and could adversely affect FF’s construction and manufacturing plans, sales and marketing activities, and business operations.
 
The spread of COVID-19 has caused FF to modify its business practices, including limiting employee travel, requiring all non-essential personnel to work from home, and canceling or reducing physical participation in meetings, events and conferences. Further action may be required by government authorities or the Company to ensure the health and safety of FF’s employees, customers, suppliers, vendors and business partners. There is no assurance that such actions will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus or be satisfactory to government authorities. If significant portions of FF’s workforce are unable to work effectively, including due to illness, quarantines, social distancing, government actions or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, FF’s business prospects, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively impacted.
 
On April 17, 2020, the Company entered into a Paycheck Protection Program Promissory Note (“PPP Note”) with U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) lender East West Bank under the Paycheck Protection Program of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”). The Company received total proceeds of $9.2 million from the PPP Note. In accordance with the requirements of the CARES Act, the Company used the proceeds for payroll costs and rent. As of December 31, 2021, the SBA informed the Company that a principal amount of $9.0 million as well as accrued interest of $0.2 million was forgiven. The balance of $0.2 million (including accrued interest) was paid in April 2022.
 
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts FF will depend on future developments which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to the duration and spread of the pandemic, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, the effectiveness and side effects of vaccines, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activities can resume. The COVID-19 pandemic could limit the ability of FF’s suppliers and business partners to perform, including third-party suppliers’ ability to provide components, materials and service used for FF 91. FF may also experience an increase in the cost of raw materials. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, FF may continue to experience an adverse impact to its business as a result of the global economic impact and any lasting effects on the global economy, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future.
 
If FF is unable to attract and/or retain key employees and hire qualified Board members, officers and other individuals, its ability to compete could be harmed.
 
FF’s future success depends, in part, upon its ability to retain key members of its senior management team and the Board, and to attract and retain other highly qualified individuals for the Board and senior management positions. In the past several months, FF has experienced significant changes in the membership of the Board and senior management team, including most recently the transition in the Global CEO position. This significant recent turnover has disrupted, and potential future turnover could further disrupt, FF’s operations, strategic focus or ability to drive stockholder value.
 
If FF fails to attract new skilled personnel for senior management positions and the Board, or if one or more of them are unable or unwilling to continue their services with FF, FF may not be able to replace them easily, in a timely manner, or at all. Movements in the price of Class A Common Stock, including any decline, may significantly affect the value of employee stock options, which may at any time be insufficient to counteract more lucrative offers from other companies.
 
In addition, FF may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. Certain current and former executives of FF adopted a global partnership program to retain, and provide incentives for, certain key management members. However, there is no guarantee that FF will be able to attract other qualified candidates to fill certain positions. The failure to do so may lead to difficulties in effectively executing FF’s business strategies, and its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
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Furthermore, if any of FF’s executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, FF may lose know-how and be poorly positioned in the marketplace.
 
Unionization activities or labor disputes may disrupt FF’s business and operations and affect its profitability.
 
Although none of our employees are currently represented by organized labor unions, it is not uncommon for employees at companies in the automobile industry to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and increased risk of work stoppages. Although FF works diligently to provide the best possible work environment for its employees, they could still decide to join or seek representation by organized labor unions, or FF may be required to become a union signatory. FF’s business and operations as well as its profitability could be adversely affected if unionized activities such as work stoppages occur, or if FF becomes involved in labor disputes or other actions filed by labor unions. Any unfavorable outcome in such disputes could create a negative perception of how FF treats its employees.
 
If FF’s employees were to engage in strikes or other work stoppages, or if third-party strikes or work stoppages cause supply chain interruptions, FF’s business, prospects, operations, financial condition and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.